Thursday, March 31, 2011

Brahma Sutras - Part XX

Section 2: Adrisyatvadhikaranam: Topic 6 (Sutras 21-23)

That which cannot be seen is Brahman.

Adrisyatvadigunako dharmokteh I.2.21 (52)
The possessor of qualities like indivisibility etc., (is Brahman) on account of the declaration of Its attributes.
Adrisyatva: invisibility; Adi: and the rest, beginning with; Gunakah: one who possesses the quality (Adrisyatvadigunakah: possessor of qualities like invisibility); Dharmokteh: because of the mention of qualities.
Some expressions from the Mundaka Upanishad are now taken up as the subject for discussion.
We read in the Mundaka Upanishad (I-1-5 & 6) "The higher knowledge is this by which the indestructible is known or realised. That which cannot be seen nor seized, which is without origin and qualities, without hands and feet, the eternal, all-pervading, omnipresent, infinitesimal, that which is imperishable, that it is which the wise consider as the source of all beings."
Here the doubt arises whether the source of all beings which is spoken of as characterised by invisibility etc., is Pradhana, or the individual soul, or the Supreme Self or the Highest Lord.
That which here is spoken of as the source of all beings (Bhutayoni) characterised by such attributes as invisibility and so on, can be the Supreme Self or Brahman only, nothing else, because qualities like "He is all-knowing (Sarvajna), all-perceiving (Sarvavit) Mun. Up. I-1-9 are true only of Brahman and not of the Pradhana which is non-intelligent. Certainly it cannot refer to the Jiva or the embodied soul as he is narrowed by his limiting conditions. The section also, in which these passages occur relates to the Highest Knowledge or Para Vidya. Therefore it must refer to Brahman and not to Pradhana or Jiva.

Viseshanabhedavyapadesabhyam cha netarau I.2.22 (53)
The other two (viz. the individual soul and the Pradhana) are not (the source of all beings) for distinctive attributes and differences are stated.
Viseshanabhedavyapadesabhyam: on account of the mention of distinctive attributes and differences; Cha: and; Na: not; Itarau: the other two.
An argument in support of Sutra 21 is given.
The source of all beings is Brahman or the Supreme Self but not either of the two others viz., the individual soul for the following reason also.
We read in the Mundaka Upanishad II.1, 2 "That the heavenly person is without a body. He is both without and within, is birthless, without breath, and without mind, pure, higher than the high, Imperishable." The distinctive attributes mentioned here such as "being of a heavenly nature" (Divya), 'Birthless', 'Pure', etc., can in no way belong to the individual soul who erroneously regards himself to be limited by name and form as presented by Avidya or ignorance and erroneously considers himself limited, impure, corporeal, etc. Therefore the passage obviously refers to the Supreme Self or Brahman who is the subject of all the Upanishads.
"Higher than the high, Imperishable (Pradhana)" intimates that the source of all beings spoken of in the last Sutra is not the Pradhana but something different from it. Here the term imperishable means the Avyaktam or Avyakrita (the unmanifested or the undifferentiated) which represents the potentiality or the seed of all names and forms, contains the subtle parts of the material elements and abides in the Lord. As it is no effect of anything, it is high when compared to all effects. Intellect, mind, egoism, the Tanmatras, the organs are all born from it. "Aksharat paratah parah - Higher than the high Imperishable", which expresses a difference clearly indicates that the Supreme Self or Brahman is meant here. Beyond Pradhana or Avyaktam is Para Brahman. It is a settled conclusion therefore that the source of all beings must mean the highest Self or Brahman only.
A further argument in favour of the same conclusion is given in the following Sutra.

Rupopanyasaccha I-2-23 (54)
And on account of its form being mentioned (the passage under discussion refers to Brahman).
Rupa: form; Upanyasat: because of the mention; Cha: and.
The argument in support of Sutra 21 is continued.
Further His form is described in the Mundaka Upanishad II-1-4 "Fire is His head, His eyes the sun and the moon, the quarters His ears, His speech the Vedas, the wind His breath, His heart the universe; from His feet came the earth, He is indeed the inner Self of all beings."
This statement of form can refer only to the Supreme Lord or Brahman. Such a description is appropriate only in the case of Brahman, because the Jiva is of limited power and because Pradhana (matter) cannot be the Soul or inner Self of living beings.
As the "source of all beings" forms the general topic, the whole passage from "From Him is born breath" upto "He is the inner Self of all beings" refers to that same source.
"The Person indeed is all this, sacrifice, knowledge etc." Mun. Up. II-1-10, intimates that the source of all beings referred to in the passage under discussion is none other than the Supreme Self or Brahman, for He is the inner Self of all beings.

Brahma Sutras - Part XIX

Section 2: Antaryamyadhikaranam: Topic 5 (Sutras 18-20)

The internal ruler is Brahman.

Antaryamyadhidaivadishu taddharmavyapadesat I.2.18 (49)
The internal ruler over the gods and so on (is Brahman) because the attributes of that (Brahman) are mentioned.
Antaryami: the ruler within; Adhidaivadishu: in the gods, etc.; Tat: His;Dharma: attributes; Vyapadesat: because of the statement.
A passage from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is now taken up for discussion. In Bri. Up. III-7-1 we read "He who within rules this world and the other world and all beings" and later on "He who dwells in the earth and within the earth, whom the earth does not know, whose body the earth is, who rules the earth from within, he is thy Self, the ruler within, the immortal" etc., III-7-3.
Here a doubt arises whether the Inner Ruler (Antaryamin) denotes the individual soul or some Yogin endowed with extraordinary powers such as for instance, the power of making his body subtle or the presiding deity or Pradhana or Brahman (the Highest Self).
The Purvapakshin or the opponent says: Some god presiding over the earth and so on must be the Antaryamin. He only is capable of ruling the earth as he is endowed with the organs of action. Rulership can rightly be ascribed to him only. Or else the ruler may be some Yogin who is able to enter within all things on account of his extraordinary Yogic powers. Certainly the supreme Self cannot be meant as He doesnot possess the organs of actions which are needed for ruling.
We give the following reply. The internal Ruler must be Brahman or the Supreme Self. Why so? Because His qualities are mentioned in the passage under discussion. Brahman is the cause of all created things. The universal rulership is an appropriate attribute of the Supreme Self only. Omnipotence, Selfhood, Immortality, etc., can be ascribed to Brahman only.
The passage "He whom the earth does not know," shows that the Inner Ruler is not known by the earth-deity. Therefore it is obvious that the Inner Ruler is different from that deity. The attributes 'unseen', 'unheard', also refer to the Supreme Self only Which is devoid of shape and other sensible qualities.
He is also described in the section as being all-pervading, as He is inside and the Ruler within of everything viz., the earth, the sun, water, fire, sky, the ether, the senses, etc. This also can be true only of the Highest Self or Brahman. For all these reasons, the Inner Ruler is no other but the Supreme Self or Brahman.

Na cha smartamataddharmabhilapat I.2.19 (50)
And (the Internal Ruler is) not that which is taught in the Sankhya Smriti (viz., Pradhana) because qualities contrary to its nature are mentioned (here).
Na: neither; Cha: also, and; Smartam: that which is taught in (Sankhya) Smriti; Ataddharmabhilapat: because qualities contrary to its nature are mentioned.
An argument in support of Sutra 18 is given.
The word Antaryamin (Inner Ruler) cannot relate to Pradhana as it has not got Chaitanya (sentiency) and cannot be called Atman.
The Pradhana is not this 'Internal Ruler' as the attributes "He is the immortal, unseen Seer, unheard Hearer" etc., "There is no other seer but He, there is no other thinker but He, there is no other Knower but He. This is the Self, the Ruler within, the Immortal. Everything else is of evil" (Bri. Up. III-7-23), cannot be ascribed to the non-intelligent blind Pradhana.
The Purvapakshin or the opponent says: Well then, if the term 'Internal Ruler' cannot denote the Pradhana as it is neither a Self nor seer it can certainly denote the individual soul or Jiva who is intelligent and therefore sees, hears, thinks and knows, who is internal and therefore of the nature of Self. Further the individual soul is capable of ruling over the organs, as he is the enjoyer. Therefore the internal ruler is the individual soul or Jiva.
The following Sutra gives a suitable answer to this.

Sariraschobhaye'pi hi bhedenainamadhiyate I.2.20 (51)
And the individual soul (is not the Internal Ruler) for both also (i.e. both recensions viz., the Kanva and Madhyandina Sakhas of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad) speak of it as different (from the Internal Ruler.)
Sarirah: the embodied, the individual soul; Cha: also, and; (Na: not); Ubhaye:the both namely the recentions Kanva and Madhyandinas; Api: even, also; Hi:because; Bhedena: by way of difference; Enam: this, the Jiva; Adhiyate:read, speak of, indicate.
The argument in support of Sutra 18 is continued. The word 'not' is to be supplied from the preceding Sutra.
The followers of both Sakhas speak in their texts of the individual soul as different from the internal ruler. The Kanvas read "He who dwells in Knowledge -Yo vijnane tishthan" Bri. Up. III-7-22. Here 'knowledge' stands for the individual soul. The Madhyandinas read "He who dwells in the Self - ya atmani tishthan". Here 'Self' stands for the individual soul. In either reading the individual soul is spoken of as different from the 'Internal Ruler', for the Internal Ruler is the Ruler of the individual soul also.
The difference between the Jiva and Brahman is one of Upadhi (limitation). The difference between the Internal Ruler and the individual soul is merely the product of ignorance or Avidya. It has its reason in the limiting adjunct, consisting of the organs of action, presented by ignorance. The difference is not absolutely true. Because the Self within is one only; two internal Selfs are not possible. But on account of limiting adjuncts the one Self is practically treated as if it were two, just as we make a distinction between the ether of the jar and the universal ether.
The scriptural text "where there is duality, as it were, there one sees another" intimates that the world exists only in the sphere of ignorance, while the subsequent text "But when the Self only is all this how should one see another" declares that the world disappears in the sphere of true knowledge.

Narayaneeyam - Part XI

Dashaka 16
दक्षो विरिञ्चतनयोऽथ मनोस्तनूजां
लब्ध्वा प्रसूतिमिह षोडश चाप कन्या: ।
धर्मे त्रयोदश ददौ पितृषु स्वधां च
स्वाहां हविर्भुजि सतीं गिरिशे त्वदंशे ॥१॥
दक्ष: विरिञ्च-तनय: अथDaksha, the son of Brahmaa, then
मनो:-तनूजाम् लब्ध्वा प्रसूतिम्-getting Manu's daughter Prasooti, in marriage
इहthrough her
षोडश च-आप कन्या:begot sixteen daughters
धर्मे त्रयोदश ददौto Dharma he gave thirteen
पितृषु स्वधां च(he gave) Swadhaa to the Pitris
स्वाहां हविर्भुजि(and) Swahaa to Agni
सतीं गिरिशे त्वत्-अंशेSati (he gave to) Shiva, who is an aspect of Thyself
Daksha Prajaapati, the son of Brahmaa married Prasooti, the daughter of Manu and begot sixteen daughters off her. He gave thirteen of them to Dharmaa deva, Swadhaa to the Pitris, Swaahaa to Agni and Sati to Shiva who is an aspect of Thyself.
मूर्तिर्हि धर्मगृहिणी सुषुवे भवन्तं
नारायणं नरसखं महितानुभावम् ।
यज्जन्मनि प्रमुदिता: कृततूर्यघोषा:
पुष्पोत्करान् प्रववृषुर्नुनुवु: सुरौघा: ॥२॥
मूर्ति:-हि धर्म-गृहिणीMurti the wife of Dharmadeva
सुषुवे भवन्तं नारायणंgave birth to Thee as Naaraayana
नरसखं महित-अनुभावंalong with Nara of great glory
यत्-जन्मनिat whose birth
प्रमुदिता:extremely delighted
कृत-तूर्य-घोषा:sounding musical instruments
पुष्प-उत्करान् प्रववृषु:-(and) showering heaps of celestial flowers
नुनुवु: सुरौघा:that host of Devas sang hymns in Thy praise
Murti the wife of Dharmadeva gave birth to Thee as her most glorious son Naaraayana, along with Nara as inseperable companion. The gods in the heavens rejoiced at this birth, they sang hymns in Thy praise, in accomponiment of musical instruments, and showered heaps of flowers.
दैत्यं सहस्रकवचं कवचै: परीतं
साहस्रवत्सरतपस्समराभिलव्यै: ।
पर्यायनिर्मिततपस्समरौ भवन्तौ
शिष्टैककङ्कटममुं न्यहतां सलीलम् ॥३॥
दैत्यम्the Asura
सहस्र-कवचम् कवचै: परीतम्known as Sahasrakavacha, who was covered by a thousand coat of arms
साहस्र-वत्सर-तप:-समर-अभिलव्यै:which could be pierced only by penance for one thousand years and fighting for the same duration
पर्याय-निर्मित-तप:-समरौtaking turns in doing penance and fighting
भवन्तौThou two
शिष्ट-ऐक-कङ्कटम्-अमुम्(one who was) left with only one coat of armour, this Asura
न्यहताम्killed effortlessly
सलीलम्as a sport
The Asura known as Sahasrakavacha, had one thousand coats of armour. One who did penance for a thousand years and also fought with the Asura for a thousand years, simultaniously, only could pierce the armours. Thou as Naaraayan along with Nara did the required in turns and all the coats of the Asura were destroyed but one remained. Then Thou killed him effortlessly, as a sport.
अन्वाचरन्नुपदिशन्नपि मोक्षधर्मं
त्वं भ्रातृमान् बदरिकाश्रममध्यवात्सी: ।
शक्रोऽथ ते शमतपोबलनिस्सहात्मा
दिव्याङ्गनापरिवृतं प्रजिघाय मारम् ॥४॥
उपदिशन्-अपिand also preaching
मोक्ष-धर्मम्the path of liberation
त्वं भ्रातृमान्Thou along with Thy brother (Nara)
बदरिकाश्रमम्-अध्यवात्सी:dwelt in Badarikaashrama
शक्र:-अथIndra then
ते शम-तप:-बल-निस्सह-आत्माunable to bear because of jealousy Thy prowess acquired by discipline and penance
दिव्याङ्गना-परिवृतम्surrounded by celectial beauties
Practicing and teaching the path of disciplines, leading to liberation, Thou with Nara Thy brother, dwelt in Badarikaashrama. Indra who was jealous of Thy spiritual powers, which Thou had acquired by penance and discipline, sent cupid along with celestial beauties to disturb Thee.
कामो वसन्तमलयानिलबन्धुशाली
कान्ताकटाक्षविशिखैर्विकसद्विलासै: ।
विध्यन्मुहुर्मुहुरकम्पमुदीक्ष्य च त्वां
भीरुस्त्वयाऽथ जगदे मृदुहासभाजा ॥५॥
वसन्त-मलय-अनिलwith Vasant (spring) and Malaya breeze
बन्धुशालीas his friends (associates)
कान्ता-कटाक्ष-विशिखै:-with the arrows in the sidelong glances of the damsels
विकसत्-विलासै:and amorous movements
विध्यन्-मुहु:-मुहु:-piercing again and again
अकम्पम्-उदीक्ष्य च त्वाम्and seeing Thee unwavered
भीरु:-(were) frightened
त्वया-अथ जगदेthen, were told by Thee
मृदु-हास-भाजा(Thee) who were smiling
Cupid accompanied by spring season and the Malaya breeze, tried to attack Thee many times by the arrows consisting of the damsels' sidelong glances and their amorous movements. Finding Thee unaffected, they were frightened. Thou then smilingly spoke to them.
भीत्याऽलमङ्गज वसन्त सुराङ्गना वो
मन्मानसं त्विह जुषध्वमिति ब्रुवाण: ।
त्वं विस्मयेन परित: स्तुवतामथैषां
प्रादर्शय: स्वपरिचारककातराक्षी: ॥६॥
भीत्या-अलम्-do not fear
अङ्गज वसन्त सुराङ्गना व:you (all) Cupid, Spring, damsels
मत्-मानसम् तु-इहhere, however, (you all) product of my mind
इति ब्रुवाण:thus saying
त्वंThou (showed)
विस्मयेन परित:(who were) surrounded by wonder (wonder-struck)
स्तुवताम्-अथ-ऐषाम्who were praising Thee, then to them
प्रादर्शय:(Thou) showed
स्वपरिचारक-कातराक्षी:the beautiful damsels attending on Thee
Thou told Cupid and others who were standing around Thee struck with wonder, and praising Thee -" O Kaamdeva, Spring and damsels! Do not fear. Look at these products of my mind." So saying Thou revealed to them the beautiful handmaids attending on Thee.
सम्मोहनाय मिलिता मदनादयस्ते
त्वद्दासिकापरिमलै: किल मोहमापु: ।
दत्तां त्वया च जगृहुस्त्रपयैव सर्व-
स्वर्वासिगर्वशमनीं पुनरुर्वशीं ताम् ॥७॥
सम्मोहनायto enchant (Thee)
मिलिता मदन-आदय:-Cupid and others who had assembled
त्वत्-दासिका-परिमलै:by the fragrance of Thy handmaids
किल मोहम्-आपु:indeed were enchanted
दत्तां त्वया चand given by Thee
जगृहु:-त्रपया-एवaccepted (Urvashi) with shame indeed
सर्व-स्वर्वासि-गर्व-शमनींwho humbled the pride of all celestial damsels
पुन:-उर्वशीं ताम्again that Urvashi
Kaamadeva (Cupid) and others who had come to overpower Thee, were themselves captivated by Thy handmaids' fragrance.Then, they, feeling ashamed, accepted Urvashi, who was given by Thee and who humbled the pride of all the celestial damsels.
दृष्ट्वोर्वशीं तव कथां च निशम्य शक्र:
पर्याकुलोऽजनि भवन्महिमावमर्शात् ।
एवं प्रशान्तरमणीयतरावतारा-
त्त्वत्तोऽधिको वरद कृष्णतनुस्त्वमेव ॥८॥
दृष्ट्वा-उर्वशींon seeing Urvashee
तव कथां च निशम्यand hearing Thy story
पर्याकुल:-अजनिbecame perplexed
भवत्-महिमा-अवमर्शात्on realising Thy glory
एवंin this manner
प्रशान्त-रमणीयतर-अवतारात्gentle and so beautiful than this incarnation (avataara)
त्त्वत्त:-of Thee
अधिक:greater (surpassing)
वरदO Bestower of boons!
कृष्णतनु:-त्वम्-एवis Thy incarnation as Krishna, only
Seeing Urvashi and hearing about Thy achievements, Indra was perplexed, and thus realized Thy glory. O Bestower of Boons! This incarnation of Thee as Nara Naaraayana which is so gentle and beautiful, is excelled only by Thy incarnation as Krishna.
दक्षस्तु धातुरतिलालनया रजोऽन्धो
नात्यादृतस्त्वयि च कष्टमशान्तिरासीत् ।
येन व्यरुन्ध स भवत्तनुमेव शर्वं
यज्ञे च वैरपिशुने स्वसुतां व्यमानीत् ॥९॥
दक्ष:-तुDaksha, indeed
धातु:-अति-लालनयाdue to excessive indulgence shown by Brahmaa
रज:-अन्ध:blinded by Rajoguna (hautiness)
न-अति-आदृत:-त्वयिwithout much respect for Thee
च कष्टम्-and Alas!
अशान्ति:-आसीत्was unpeaceful in mind
येन व्यरुन्ध सbecause of that he became antagonistic to
भवत्-तनुम्-एव शर्वंShiva who is a form of Thee alone
यज्ञे च वैर-पिशुनेand during the Yanjya which he did to show his enimity to Shiva
स्व-सुताम् व्यमानीत्insulted his own daughter
Owing to the extreme indulgence given to him by Brahmaa, Daksha was blinded with hautiness and overpowered by Rajoguna. Alas! He had no respect for Thee and had lost his mental calmness. So he became antagonistic to Shiva who is Thee alone in another form. He performed a sacrifice to show his enemity towards Shiva and also slighted his own daughter Sati.
क्रुद्धेशमर्दितमख: स तु कृत्तशीर्षो
देवप्रसादितहरादथ लब्धजीव: ।
त्वत्पूरितक्रतुवर: पुनराप शान्तिं
स त्वं प्रशान्तिकर पाहि मरुत्पुरेश ॥१०॥
क्रुद्ध-ईश-मर्दित-मख:enraged, Shiva disrupted the Yanjya
स तु कृत्त-शीर्ष:and that Daksha was beheaded
देव-प्रसादित-हरात्-अथfrom Shiva who was propitiated by the gods, then,
लब्ध-जीव:was restored to life
त्वत्-पूरित-क्रतुवर:whose Yanjya was completed by Thy grace
पुन:-आप शान्तिं(he) regained peace of mind
स त्वं प्रशान्तिकरThat Thou O Bestower of calmness!
पाहि मरुत्पुरेशprotect O Lord of Guruvaayur!
Enraged, Shiva disrupted the sacrifice of Daksha and also cut off his head. However on being propitiated by the gods, Shiva restored Daksha to life again. His sacrifice was then completed by Thy grace, and he also achieved mental peace. O Lord of Guruvaayur! O Bestower of calmness! deign to protect me.

Narayaneeyam - Part XV

Dashaka 15
मतिरिह गुणसक्ता बन्धकृत्तेष्वसक्ता
त्वमृतकृदुपरुन्धे भक्तियोगस्तु सक्तिम् ।
महदनुगमलभ्या भक्तिरेवात्र साध्या
कपिलतनुरिति त्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥१॥
मति: इहthe intellect, here (in this world)
गुण-सक्ताwhich is attached to the Gunas (and so to the sense objects)
बन्धकृत्-is the cause of bondage
तेषु-असक्ता तु-if it (the intellect) is not attached to them (the sense objects)
अमृत-कृत्-(then) it is the cause of liberation
उपरुन्धे(but) prevents
भक्तियोग:-तुthe path of devotion, indeed
सक्तिम्(whereas) attachment
महत्-अनुगम-लभ्या भक्ति:-devotion which arises from following holy men
एव-अत्र साध्याalone should be sought here
कपिल-तनु:-इति त्वंThou incarnate as Kapil, thus
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
In this world when the intellect gets attached to the sense objects, which are the product of the three Gunas, it becomes the cause of bondage. Otherwise, it leads to liberation. The path of devotion indeed prevents attachment. Devotion which arises from following holy men alone should be saught after. Thou incarnate as Kapila thus instructed Devahooti.
प्रकृतिमहदहङ्काराश्च मात्राश्च भूता-
न्यपि हृदपि दशाक्षी पूरुष: पञ्चविंश: ।
इति विदितविभागो मुच्यतेऽसौ प्रकृत्या
कपिलतनुरिति त्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥२॥
प्रकृति-महत्-अहङ्कारा:-चPrakriti, Mahat, Ahankaar and
मात्रा:-चthe five Tanmaatraas
भूतानि-अपिand also the five elements
हृत्-अपिand the mind
दश-आक्षीthe ten Indriyaas
पूरुष: पञ्चविंशthe Purusha as the twenty fifth
इति विदित-विभाग:knowing these divisions
मुच्यते-असौ प्रकृत्याhe is released from Prakriti
कपिल-तनु:-इति त्वंincarnate as Kapil, Thou
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
Prakriti, (Primordial Nature), Mahat-tatva (the great Spirit),Ahankaara (I sense), the five Tanmaatraas (sound, smell, touch, form, taste), the five Bhootaas (subtle elements- space,air,fire, water, earth), Antahkarana (mind and its various modes), the ten Indriyaas (Organs, five of knowledge-hearing, seeing, touch, taste smell, and five of action-speech,hands,legs,anus,genitals), and Purush (Atman), these are the twentyfive categories. When the Purusha realizes the distinctiveness of these categories, he is liberated from the bondage of Pakriti.Thus Thou incarnate as Kapila, instructed Devahooti.
प्रकृतिगतगुणौघैर्नाज्यते पूरुषोऽयं
यदि तु सजति तस्यां तत् गुणास्तं भजेरन् ।
मदनुभजनतत्त्वालोचनै: साऽप्यपेयात्
कपिलतनुरिति त्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥३॥
प्रकृति-गत-गुण-औघै:-by the many attributes of Prakriti
न-आज्यते पूरुष:-अयंthis Purusha is not tainted
यदि तु सजति तस्यांbut if he becomes attached to Prakriti
तत् गुणा:-तं भजेरन्the attributes of Prakriti attach themselves to him
मत्-अनुभजन-by constant worship to me
तत्-तु-आलोचनै:and by enquiring into My real nature
सा-अपि-अपेयात्that Prakriti also will leave (her hold)
कपिलतनु:-इति त्वंa human descent as Kapil Thou
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
The Purusha, by itself, is free from the attributes of Prakriti, but if he identifies himself with Pakriti, then the attributes of Prakriti attach themselves to him. Prakriti will leave its hold on Purusha if he constantly worships Me and enquires into My real nature. Thou incarnate as Kapila thus instructed Devahooti.
गरुडसमधिरूढं दिव्यभूषायुधाङ्कम् ।
रुचितुलिततमालं शीलयेतानुवेलं
कपिलतनुरिति त्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥४॥
विमल-मति:-one who has purified his mind
उपात्तै:-आसन-आद्यै:-by control of the senses by meditative postures
मत्-अङ्गम् गरुड-समधिरूढम्should, (meditate on) My form mounted on Garuda
दिव्य-भूषा-आयुध-अङ्कम्adorned with divine ornaments and divine weapons
रुचि-तुलित-तमालम्resembling a Tamaala tree in lustre
शीलयेत-अनुवेलंshould meditate on constantly
कपिल-तनु: इति त्वंa human descent as Kapila, Thou
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
Having purified the mind by control of the senses and by meditative postures, one should constantly meditate on My form, adorned with divine ornaments and weapons, seated on Garuda and blue and lustruous like the Tamaala tree. Thus ,Thou instructed Devahooti incarnate as Kapila.
मम गुणगणलीलाकर्णनै: कीर्तनाद्यै-
र्मयि सुरसरिदोघप्रख्यचित्तानुवृत्ति: ।
भवति परमभक्ति: सा हि मृत्योर्विजेत्री
कपिलतनुरिति त्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥५॥
मम-गुण-गण-लीला-आकर्णनै:by listening to My many excellences and sportive activities
कीर्तन-आद्यै:(and) by chanting My name etc.
मयिin Me,
सुर-सरित्-ओघ-प्रख्य-चित्त-अनुवृत्ति:in which the mind flows in a continuous stream like that of Ganga
भवति परम-भक्ति:is born that supreme devotion
सा हिthat (devotion) alone
मृत्यो:-विजेत्रीis the conqueror of the cycle of birth and death
कपिल-तनु:-इति त्वंa human descent as Kapil Thou
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
By regularly listening to My excellences and My sportive deeds and by chanting My name, the supreme devotion is born. This devotion in which the mind flows in an uninterrupted stream towards Me, like the Ganga flows towards the sea, alone can conquer the cycle of birth and death. Thus, Thou incarnate as Kapil, instructed Devahooti.
अहह बहुलहिंसासञ्चितार्थै: कुटुम्बं
प्रतिदिनमनुपुष्णन् स्त्रीजितो बाललाली ।
विशति हि गृहसक्तो यातनां मय्यभक्त:
कपिलतनुरितित्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥६॥
बहुल-हिंसा-सञ्चित-अर्थै:with wealth earned by many cruel and unfair means
कुटुम्बंones family
प्रतिदिनम्-अनुपुष्णन्everyday feeding
स्त्रीजित:controled over by wife
बाललालीfondly loving the children
विशति हिattains indeed
गृहसक्त:intensely attached to his house
यातनांsufferings (of hell)
मयि-अभक्त:one who is not devoted to Me
कपिल्-तनु:-इति त्वंa human descent as Kapil, Thou
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
Alas! Men acquire wealth by unfair and cruel means for the support of their own families and are in subservience to women's charms and love of children. Being devoid of devotion to Me, intensely attached to the worldly possessions, they are led to the sufferings of hell. Thus, Thou instructed Devahooti, as Kapil incarnate.
युवतिजठरखिन्नो जातबोधोऽप्यकाण्डे
प्रसवगलितबोध: पीडयोल्लङ्घ्य बाल्यम् ।
पुनरपि बत मुह्यत्येव तारुण्यकाले
कपिलतनुरिति त्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥७॥
युवति-जठर-खिन्न:suffering in the womb of a young woman (mother)
जात-बोध:-अपि-अकाण्डेeven though suddenly getting the knowledge of Reality
प्रसव-गलित-बोध:losing that knowledge immediately on birth
पीडया-उल्लङ्घ्य बाल्यंspending chilhood afflicted with ailments
पुन:-अपि बत मुह्यति-एवagain is infatuated alas!
तारुण्य-कालेduring youth
कपिल-तनु:-इति त्वंa human descent as Kapil, Thou
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
Repeatedly entering the womb for rebirth, the Jiva though retains the memory of the Supreme Reality, he loses it during the travails of birth. After going through various sufferings of childhood, he enters the stage of youth, when he once again is overcome by the infatuation of sense life. Thus, Thou incarnate as Kapil, instructed Devahooti.
पितृसुरगणयाजी धार्मिको यो गृहस्थ:
स च निपतति काले दक्षिणाध्वोपगामी ।
मयि निहितमकामं कर्म तूदक्पथार्थं
कपिल्तनुरिति त्वं देवहूत्यै न्यगादी: ॥८॥
पितृ-सुर-गण-याजीone who performs sacrifices to ancestors and gods
धार्मिक: य: गृहस्थ:a householder who performs righteous deeds
स च निपतति कालेand he comes back (to this earth) in due course
दक्षिण-अध्व-उपगामीgoing (led by) the Southern path
मयि निहितम्-dedicated to Me
अकामं कर्म तु-(doing) desireless actions, however
उदक्-पथार्थंis led by the Northern path
कपिल्-तनु:-इति त्वंa human descent as Kapila, Thou ,thus
देवहूत्यै न्यगादी:instructed Devahooti
A virtuous householder who makes sacrificial offerings to forefathers (Pitris) and gods (Devas), goes by the Southern path after death, and is born again when he has enjoyed the fruits of his meritorious deeds.Those who live by performing desireless actions as offerings to Me, go by the Northern path, after death. Thus Thou instructed Devahooti, incarnate as Kapila.
इति सुविदितवेद्यां देव हे देवहूतिं
कृतनुतिमनुगृह्य त्वं गतो योगिसङ्घै: ।
विमलमतिरथाऽसौ भक्तियोगेन मुक्ता
त्वमपि जनहितार्थं वर्तसे प्रागुदीच्याम् ॥९॥
इति सुविदित-वेद्यांthus who had known well what is to be known
देव हेO Lord!
देवहूतिं कृतनुतिम्-to Devahooti who was praising Thee
अनुगृह्य त्वं गत:having blessed, Thou departed
योगि-सङ्घै:along with a group of Yogis
विमल-मति:-अथ-असौshe (Devahooti) who had become pure in mind
भक्ति-योगेन मुक्ताwas liberated by the path of devotion
त्वम्-अपि जन-हित-अर्थम्Thou also for the good of the people
वर्तसेdo stay
प्राक्-उदीच्याम्in the North East
O Lord! Having thus known all that was to be known, Thou blessed Devahooti, who was singing Thy praise. She had attained the purity of mind and was liberated by following the path of devotion. Thou also left with a group of ascetics and Thou do stay even now, in the North East for the good of the people.
परम किमु बहूक्त्या त्वत्पदाम्भोजभक्तिं
सकलभयविनेत्रीं सर्वकामोपनेत्रीम् ।
वदसि खलु दृढं त्वं तद्विधूयामयान् मे
गुरुपवनपुरेश त्वय्युपाधत्स्व भक्तिम् ॥१०॥
परमO Supreme Lord!
किमु बहूक्त्याwhat more to say
त्वत्-पद्-अम्भोज-भक्तिंdevotion to Thy lotus feet
सकल-भय-विनेत्रीम्removes all fears
सर्व-काम-उपनेत्रीम्and fulfills all desires
वदसि खलु दृढं त्वंThou (Thyself) do firmly declare indeed
तत्-विधूय-आमयान् मेtherefore eradicating my ailments
गुरुपवनपुरेशO Lord of Guruvaayur!
त्वयि-उपाधत्स्व भक्तिम्endow me with devotion to Thee
O Supreme Lord! What more do I say? Thou have firmly declared that devotion to Thy lotus feet removes all fears and fulfills all desires. O Lord of Guruvaayur! Therefore, eradicating all my ailments, endow me with devotion to Thee.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Brahma Sutras - Part XVIII

Section 2: Antaradhikaranam: Topic 4 (Sutras 13-17)

The person within the eye is Brahman.

Antara upapatteh I.2.13 (44)
The person within (the eye) (is Brahman) on account of (the attributes mentioned therein) being appropriate (only to Brahman).
Antara: inside (the eye), the being within the eye; Upapatteh: on account of the appropriateness of (attributes).
The being within the eye is Brahman, because it is reasonable to construe the passage as applying to the Supreme Self than to anything else.
The form of worship in another part of Chhandogya Upanishad (IV-15-1), taking the being within the eyes as the Supreme Self, is taken up as the subject for discussion.
In Chhandogya Upanishad IV-15-1 we read, "This person that is seen in the eye is the Self. This is Immortal and fearless, this is Brahman". The doubt here arises whether this passage refers to the reflected self which resides in the eye, or to the individual soul or to the self of some deity which presides over the organ of sight or to the Supreme Self.
The Sutra says that the person in the eye is Brahman only, because the attributes 'Immortal', 'fearless', etc., mentioned here accord with the nature of the Supreme Self only.
The attributes 'being untouched by sin', being 'Samyadvama' etc., are applicable to the Supreme Self only. The attributes of being 'Vamani' or the leader of all and 'Bhamani', the All-effulgent, applied to the person in the eye are appropriate in the case of Brahman also.
Therefore, on account of agreement, the person within the eye is the Supreme Self or Brahman only.

Sthanadivyapadesaccha I.2.14 (46)
And on account of the statement of place and so on.
Sthanadi: the place and the rest; Vyapadesat: on account of the statement;Cha: and.
An argument in support of Sutra 13 is given.
In other Srutis location etc., i.e., abode, name and form are attributed to Brahman Himself to facilitate meditation. But how can the all-pervading Brahman be in a limited space like the eye? Definite abode like the cavity of the heart, the eye, the earth, disc of the sun etc., is given to the all-pervading Brahman for the purpose of meditation (Upasana), just as Saligrama is prescribed for meditation on Vishnu. This is not contrary to reason.
The phrase 'and so on' which forms part of the Sutra shows that not only abode is assigned to Brahman but also such things as name and form not appropriate to Brahman which is devoid of name and form, are ascribed to It for the sake of meditation, as Brahman without qualities cannot be an object of meditation. Vide Chh. Up. 1.6.6-7. "His name is 'Ut'. He with the golden beard."

Sukhavisishtabhidhanadeva cha I.2.15 (46)
And on account of the passage referring to that which is distinguished by bliss (i.e. Brahman).
Sukha: bliss; Visishta: qualified by; Abhidhanat: because of the description;Eva: alone; Cha: and.
The argument in support of Sutra 13 is continued.
Because the text refers to the Supreme Self only and not to Jiva who is miserable.
The same Brahman which is spoken of as characterised by bliss in the beginning of the chapter in the clauses "Breath is Brahman," "Ka is Brahman" "Kha is Brahman" we must suppose It to be referred to in the present passage also, as it is proper to stick to the subject matter under discussion.
The fires taught to Upakosala about Brahman "Breath is Brahman, bliss is Brahman, the ether is Brahman" Chh. Up. IV-10-5. This same Brahman is further elucidated by his teacher as "the being in the eye".
On hearing the speech of the fires viz., "Breath is Brahman, Ka is Brahman, Kha is Brahman", Upakosala says "I understand that breath is Brahman, but I do not understand that Ka or Kha is Brahman". Therefore the fires reply "What is Ka isKha. What is Kha is Ka".
The word Ka in ordinary language denotes sensual pleasure. If the word Khawere not used to qualify the sense of Ka one would think that ordinary worldly pleasure was meant. But as the two words Ka and Kha occur together and qualify each other, they indicate Brahman whose Self is Bliss. Therefore the reference is to Supreme Bliss and such a description can apply only to Brahman.
If the word Brahman in the clause "Ka is Brahman" were not added and if the sentence would run "KaKha is Brahman", the word Ka would be only an adjective and thus pleasure being a mere quality cannot be a subject of meditation. To prevent this, both words Ka as well as Kha are joined with the word Brahman. "Ka is Brahman. Kha is Brahman". Qualities as well as persons having those qualities could be objects of meditation.

Srutopanishatkagatyabhidhanaccha I.2.16 (47)
And on account of the statement of the way of him who has known the Truth of the Upanishads.
Sruto: heard; Upanishatka: Upanishads; Gati: way; Abhidhanat: because of the statement; Cha: and.
The argument in support of Sutra 13 is continued.
The person in the eye is the Supreme Self for the following reason also. From Sruti we know of the way of the knower of Brahman. He travels after death through the Devayana path or the path of the Gods. That way is described in Prasna Up. 1-10. "Those who have sought the Self by penance, abstinence, faith and knowledge attain the Sun by the Northern Path or the path of Devayana. From thence they do not return. This is the immortal abode, free from fear, and the highest."
The knower of the "person in the eye" also goes by this path after death. From this description of the way which is known to be the way of him who knows Brahman it is quite clear that the person within the eye is Brahman.
The following Sutra shows that it is not possible for the above text to mean either the reflected Self or the Jiva or the deity in the Sun.

Anavasthiterasamhhavaccha netarah I.2.17 (48)
(The person within the eye is the Supreme Self) and not any other (i.e. the individual soul etc.) as these do not exist always; and on account of the impossibility (of the qualities of the person in the being ascribed to any of these).
Anavasthiteh: not existing always; Asambhavat: on account of the impossibility; Cha: and; Na: not; Itarah: any other.
The argument in support of Sutra 13 is continued.
The reflected self does not permanently abide in the eye. When some person comes near the eye the reflection of that person is seen in the eye. When he moves away the reflection disappears.
Surely you do not propose to have some one near the eye at the time of meditation so that you may meditate on the image in the eye. Such a fleeting image cannot be the object of meditation. The individual soul is not meant by the passage, because he is subject to ignorance, desire and action, he has no perfection. Hence he cannot be the object of meditation. The qualities like immortality, fearlessness, immanence, eternity, perfection etc., cannot be appropriately attributed to the reflected self or the individual soul or the deity in the sun. Therefore no other self save the Supreme Self is here spoken of as the person in the eye. The person in the eye (Akshi Purusha) must be viewed as the Supreme Self only.

Brahma Sutras - Part XVII

Section 2: Guhapravishtadhikaranam: Topic 3 (Sutras 11-12)

The dwellers in the cave of the heart are the individual soul and Brahman.

Guham pravistavatmanau hi taddarsanat I.2.11 (42)
The two who have entered into the cavity (of the heart) are indeed the individual soul and the Supreme Soul, because it is so seen.
Guham: in the cavity (of the heart) Pravishtau: the two who have entered;Atmanau: are the two selfs (individual soul and the Supreme Soul); Hi: indeed, because; Taddarsanat: because it is so seen.
Another passage of the Kathopanishad is taken up for discussion. In the same Kathopanishad I-3-1 we read, "Having entered the cavity of the heart, the two enjoy the reward of their works in the body. Those who know Brahman call them shade and light: likewise those householders who perform the Trinachiketa sacrifice".
The doubt arises here whether the couple referred to are the individual soul and Buddhi (intellect).
In the passage under discussion, the couple referred to are the individual soul and the Supreme Self, for these two, being both intelligent selfs, are of the same nature. We see that in ordinary life also whenever a number is mentioned, beings of the same class are understood to be meant. When a bull is brought to us, we say 'bring another, look out for a second'. It means another bull, not a horse or a man. So, if with an intelligent self, the individual soul, another is said to enter the cavity of the heart, it must refer to another of the same class i.e. to another intelligent being and not to the intellect (Buddhi) which is insentient.
Sruti and Smriti speak of the Supreme Self as placed in the cave. We read in Kathopanishad I-2-12 "The ancient who is hidden in the cave, who dwells in the abyss". We also find in Taittiriya Upanishad II-1 "He who knows him hidden in the cave, in the highest ether" and "search for the self who entered into the cave". A special abode for the all-pervading Brahman is given for the purpose of conception and meditation. This is not contrary to reason.
Sometimes the characteristics of one in a group are indirectly applied to the whole group as when we say "The men with an umbrella" where only one has an umbrella and not the whole group. Similarly here also, though it is only one who is enjoying the fruits of actions both are spoken of as eating the fruits.
The word 'pibantau' is in the dual number meaning 'the two drink while as a matter of fact, the Jiva only drinks the fruit of his works and not the Supreme Self. We may explain the passage by saying that while the individual soul drinks, the Supreme Self also is said to drink because he makes the soul to drink. The individual soul is the direct agent, the Supreme Self is the causal agent that is to say the individual self directly drinks while the Supreme Self causes the individual soul to drink.
The phrases 'shade' and 'light' show the difference between the Infinite Knowledge of the Supreme Self and the finite knowledge of the Jiva, or that the Jiva is bound down to the chain of Samsara, while the Supreme Self is above Samsara.
We, therefore, understand by the 'two entered into the cave', the individual soul and the Supreme Self.
Another reason for this interpretation is given in the following Sutra.

Viseshanaccha I.2.12 (43)
And on account of the distinctive qualities (of the two mentioned in subsequent texts).
Viseshanat: on account of distinctive qualities; Cha: and.
An argument in support of Sutra 11 is given.
This is clear also from the description in other portions of the same scripture viz. Kathopanishad.
Further the distinctive qualities mentioned in the text agree only with the individual soul and the Supreme Soul. Because in a subsequent passage (I-3-3) the characteristics of the two that have entered the cavity of the heart are given. They indicate that the two are the individual soul and Brahman. "Know that the Self to be the charioteer, the body to be the chariot." The individual soul is represented as a charioteer driving on through the transmigratory existence and final emancipation. Further it is said "He attains the end of his journey, that highest place of Vishnu" Katha Up. I-3-9. Here it is represented that the Supreme Self is the goal of the driver's course. The two are mentioned here as the attainer and the goal attained i.e. the individual soul or Jiva and the Supreme Soul or Brahman.
In the preceding passage (I-2-12) also it is said "The wise, who by means of meditation on his Self, recognises the Ancient who is difficult to be seen, who has entered into the dark, who is hidden in the cave of the heart, who abides in the abyss as God, he indeed leaves joy and sorrow far behind". Here the two are spoken of as the meditator and the object of meditation.
Moreover the Supreme Self is the general topic. It is therefore obvious that the passage under discussion refers to the individual soul and the Supreme Self.

Narayaneeyam - Part XIV

Dashaka 14
स मनु: पङ्कजसम्भवाङ्गजन्मा ।
चरितं ते कथयन् सुखं निनाय ॥१॥
समनुस्मृत-तावक-अङ्घ्रि-युग्म:meditating properly on Thy pair of lotus feet
स: मनु:that Manu (Swayambhuva)
पङ्कजसम्भव-अङ्ग-जन्माthe son of Brahmaa
निजम्-अन्तरम्-his own Manvantara
अन्तराय-हीनम्free from all hindrances
चरितम् ते कथयन्recounting Thy glories
सुखं निनायpassed peacefully
That Swayambhuva Manu, the son of Brahmaa, spent his own Manvantara peacefully, free from all hindrances, meditating on Thy pair of lotus feet and recounting Thy glories.
समये खलु तत्र कर्दमाख्यो
द्रुहिणच्छायभवस्तदीयवाचा ।
धृतसर्गरसो निसर्गरम्यं
भगवंस्त्वामयुतं समा: सिषेवे ॥२॥
समये खलु तत्रat that very time
कर्दम-आख्य:(the Prajaapati) named Kardama
द्रुहिण-च्छाय-भव:-born from the shadow of Brahmaa
तदीय-वाचाfollowing his (Brahmaa's) words
धृत-सर्ग-रस:keenly interested in creation
निसर्ग-रम्यं भगवन्-त्वाम्-O Lord! Who are naturally charming
अयुतम् समा:for ten thousand years
सिषेवेworshipped (Thee)
During that time the Prajaapati named Kardama who was born from the shadow of Brahmaa, following his (Brahmaa's) words became keenly interested in creation. He worshipped Thee who are naturally charming, for ten thousand years.
गरुडोपरि कालमेघक्रमं
विलसत्केलिसरोजपाणिपद्मम् ।
हसितोल्लसिताननं विभो त्वं
वपुराविष्कुरुषे स्म कर्दमाय ॥३॥
गरुड-उपरिon Garuda
काल-मेघ-क्रमम्as beautiful as a dark rain-bearing cloud
विलसत्-केलि-सरोज-पाणि-पद्मम्holding in Thy hand a lustrous lotus
हसित-उल्लासित-आननम्(with Thy) face lit up with a smile
विभो त्वंO Lord! Thou
वपु:-आविष्कुरुषे स्म(Thy) form did manifest
कर्दमायfor Kardama
O Lord! Thou manifested Thy form for Kardama, sitting on Garuda, as beautiful as a dark rain-bearing cloud, holding a lustruous lotus in Thy hand, with your face lit up with a smile.
स्तुवते पुलकावृताय तस्मै
मनुपुत्रीं दयितां नवापि पुत्री: ।
कपिलं च सुतं स्वमेव पश्चात्
स्वगतिं चाप्यनुगृह्य निर्गतोऽभू: ॥४॥
स्तुवते पुलक-आवृताय तस्मैwith horripilation over his body, who was praising (Thee) to him
मनुपुत्रीम्the daughter of Manu (Devahooti)
दयिताम्as wife
नव-अपि पुत्री:also nine daughters
कपिलं च सुतम्and Kapil as son
स्वम्-एव पश्चात्Thyself finally
स्वगतिं च-अपि-अनुगृह्यand union with Thee also conferring
निर्गत:-अभू:Thou disappeared
Kardama was praising Thee thrilled with devotion. Thou blessed that he would have Manu's daughter Devahooti as wife. Thou also blessed that he would have nine daughters, that Thou Thyself will be born as his son Kapil and also that he (Kadarma) would finally attain union with Thee.
स मनु: शतरूपया महिष्या
गुणवत्या सुतया च देवहूत्या ।
समगात् कर्दममागतिप्रतीक्षम् ॥५॥
स: मनु:that Manu
शतरूपया महिष्या(along with) queen Shatarupaa
गुणवत्या सुतया देवहूत्या चand the virtuous daughter Devahooti
भवत्-ईरित-नारद-उपदिष्ट:advised by Naarada who was prompted by Thee
समगात् कर्दमम्-approached Kardama
आगति-प्रतीक्षं(who was) awaiting (their) arrival
Manu along with his queen wife Shatarupa and the virtuous daughter Devahooti, as advised by Naarada who was prompted by Thee, approached Kardama who was awaiting their arrival.
मनुनोपहृतां च देवहूतिं
तरुणीरत्नमवाप्य कर्दमोऽसौ ।
भवदर्चननिवृतोऽपि तस्यां
दृढशुश्रूषणया दधौ प्रसादम् ॥६॥
मनुना-उपहृताम् चand given respectfully by Manu
देवहूतिं तरुणी-रत्नम्-Devahooti, a jewel among damsels
अवाप्य कर्दम:-असौhaving got, that Kardama
भवत्-अर्चन-निर्वृत:-अपिthough content with worshipping Thee,
तस्यां दृढ-शुश्रूषणयाby her dedicated service
दधौ प्रसादम्(was) pleased with her
Devahooti who was a gem among women was respectfully given by Manu to Kardama. Kardama, though solely delighted in worshipping Thee, was pleased with her by her dedicated service to him.
स पुनस्त्वदुपासनप्रभावा-
द्दयिताकामकृते कृते विमाने ।
वनिताकुलसङ्कुलो नवात्मा
व्यहरद्देवपथेषु देवहूत्या ॥७॥
स: पुन;-he (Kardama)
त्वत्-उपासन-प्रभावात्-because of the glory of Thy worship
दयिता-काम-कृतेfor fulfilling the desires of his loving wife
कृते विमानेin the aerial vehicle which was made
वनिता-कुल-सङ्कुल:full of female attendents
नव-आत्माtaking on a new body
व्यहरत्-देवपथेषुsported in the garden of the gods
देवहूत्या(with) Devahooti
Thereafter Kardama by the glory of worshipping Thee, to fulfill the desires of his loving wife, took on a new body, got an aerial vehicle made, which was full of female attendents, and sported in the garden of the gods along with Devahooti.
शतवर्षमथ व्यतीत्य सोऽयं
नव कन्या: समवाप्य धन्यरूपा: ।
वनयानसमुद्यतोऽपि कान्ता-
हितकृत्त्वज्जननोत्सुको न्यवात्सीत् ॥८॥
शत-वर्षम्-अथ व्यतीत्यthen after spending a hundred years
स:-अयम्that this (Kardama)
नव कन्या: समवाप्यnine daughters begetting
धन्य-रूपा:who were very beautiful
वन-यान-समुद्यत:-अपिthough preparing to go to the forest
कान्ता-हित-कृत्-wishing to fulfill the desire of his wife (and)
त्वत्-जनन-उत्सुक:eager for Thy birth (as his son)
न्यवात्सीत्stayed on (at home)
After spending a hundred years thus and begetting nine very beautiful daughters, Kardama wanted to take up the ascetic life and retire to the forest. Yeilding to his wife's wishes and eagerly awaiting Thy birth as their son, he continued to stay on at home.
निजभर्तृगिरा भवन्निषेवा-
निरतायामथ देव देवहूत्याम् ।
कपिलस्त्वमजायथा जनानां
प्रथयिष्यन् परमात्मतत्त्वविद्याम् ॥९॥
निज-भर्तृ-गिराat the words of her husband
भवत्-निषेवा-निरतायाम्-who was ever intent on Thy worship
अथ देवthen, O Lord!
देवहूत्याम्to Devahooti
कपिल-त्वम्-अजायथाas Kapil Thou were born
जनानाम्amongst the people
प्रथयिष्यन्to proclaim
परम-आत्म-तत्व-विद्याम्the knowledge of the truth of the Supreme Being
O Lord! To Devahooti who, on the advise of her husband was ever engaged in worshipping Thee, Thou were born as Kapil in order to teach mankind the means for the attainment of the Supreme Reality.
वनमेयुषि कर्दमे प्रसन्ने
मतसर्वस्वमुपादिशन् जनन्यै ।
कपिलात्मक वायुमन्दिरेश
त्वरितं त्वं परिपाहि मां गदौघात् ॥१०॥
वनम्-एयुषि कर्दमे प्रसन्नेwhen Kardama left for the forest happily
मत-सर्वस्वम्-the entire philosophy (of Thine)
उपादिशन् जनन्यै(Thou) imparted to (Thy) mother
कपिल-आत्मकO Thou incarnate as Kapil!
वायु-मन्दिर-ईशO Lord of Guruvaayur!
त्वं परिपाहिThou relieve
माम् गद-औघात्me from my many misries
O Lord of Guruvaayur! Who were incarnate as Kapil, when Kardama left for the forest with a sense of fulfillment, Thou imparted the whole of Thy philosophy to Thy mother. Deign to hastily save me from my many ailments.

Narayaneeyam - Part XIII

Dashaka 13
हिरण्याक्षं तावद्वरद भवदन्वेषणपरं
चरन्तं सांवर्ते पयसि निजजङ्घापरिमिते ।
भवद्भक्तो गत्वा कपटपटुधीर्नारदमुनि:
शनैरूचे नन्दन् दनुजमपि निन्दंस्तव बलम् ॥१॥
हिरण्याक्षम् तावत्-to Hiranyaaksha, then
वरदO Bestower of boons!
भवत्-अण्वेषणपरम्who was searching for Thee (and)
चरन्तम् सांवर्ते पयसिwho was running around in the waters of deluge
निज-जङ्घा-परिमितेwhich was reaching his thighs
भवत्-भक्त: गत्वाThy devotee approaching (Hiranyaaksha)
कपटपटुधी:-नारदमुनि:Naarada muni who was a diplomatic missionary
शनै:-ऊचेcalmly spoke (to Hiranyaaksha)
नन्दन् दनुजम्-अपिpleasing the Asura
निन्दन्-तव बलम्and denigrating Thy prowess
O Bestower of Boons! Then Thy devotee, the sage Naarada who is skillfully diplomatic in furthering Thy purposes, approached Hiranyaaksha, who was running about searching for Thee, in the cosmic waters which barely reached his knees. Naarada calmly spoke to him, praising him and undermining Thy prowess.
स मायावी विष्णुर्हरति भवदीयां वसुमतीं
प्रभो कष्टं कष्टं किमिदमिति तेनाभिगदित: ।
नदन् क्वासौ क्वासविति स मुनिना दर्शितपथो
भवन्तं सम्प्रापद्धरणिधरमुद्यन्तमुदकात् ॥२॥
स: मायावी विष्णु:-"that deceitful Vishnu
हरति भवदीयां वसुमतींis stealing away your own earth
प्रभोO Mighty One!
कष्टं कष्टं किम्-इदम्-इतिwhat a pity, how is it so", thus
तेन-अभिगदित:by him (Naarada) was said
नदन् क्व-असौroaring "Where is he
क्व-असौ-इतिwhere is he", thus
स मुनिनाhe (the Asura) by the Muni
दर्शित-पथ:was shown the way
भवन्तं सम्प्रापत्-reached Thee
धरणि-धरम्-(Thee who was) holding up the earth
उद्यन्तम्-उदकात्coming up from the waters
When Naarada told the mighty Hiranyaaksh that the deceitful Vishnu was stealing away his own earth and how was it so , Hiranyaaksha with a roar asked where he was, where he was. Thus, following the direction given by the sage, he reached Thee, as Thou were rising up from the waters with the earth.
अहो आरण्योऽयं मृग इति हसन्तं बहुतरै-
र्दुरुक्तैर्विध्यन्तं दितिसुतमवज्ञाय भगवन् ।
महीं दृष्ट्वा दंष्ट्राशिरसि चकितां स्वेन महसा
पयोधावाधाय प्रसभमुदयुङ्क्था मृधविधौ ॥३॥
अहो आरण्य:-अयं मृग"O this is only a wild animal"
इति हसन्तंthus ridiculing with
बहुतरै:-दुरुक्तै:-विध्यन्तंand many abuses lashing out
दितिसुतम्-the son of Diti (the Asura)
अवज्ञाय भगवन्ignoring (Thee) O Lord
महीं दृष्ट्वाseeing the earth
दंष्ट्राशिरसिat the tip of the tusks
चकितां(the earth) trembling
स्वेन महसाby Thy power
पयोधौ-आधाय(then) placing (the earth) in the ocean
प्रसभम्-at once
उदयुङ्क्था(Thou) did prepare
मृधविधौfor a fight
O Lord! Thou ignored the ridiculing words of the Asura that this is only a wild animal and the many abuses hurled by him. Thou saw the earth trembling in fear at the tip of Thy tusk and so placed her firmly on the ocean by Thy power. Then Thou at once were ready for a fight.
गदापाणौ दैत्ये त्वमपि हि गृहीतोन्नतगदो
नियुद्धेन क्रीडन् घटघटरवोद्घुष्टवियता ।
रणालोकौत्सुक्यान्मिलति सुरसङ्घे द्रुतममुं
निरुन्ध्या: सन्ध्यात: प्रथममिति धात्रा जगदिषे ॥४॥
गदापाणौ दैत्येthe Asura armed with a mace
त्वम्-अपि हिThou also indeed
गृहीत-उन्न्त-गद:flourishing a mighty mace
नियुद्धेन क्रीडन्by a dual (fight) as though sporting (the clashing of maces)
घट-घट-रव-उद्घुष्ट-वियताresounding the sky with fierce sound
रण-आलोक-औत्सुक्यात्-with the eagerness to see the fight
मिलति सुरसङ्घेwhen the hoasts of gods assembled
द्रुतम्-अमुम् निरुन्ध्या:quickly kill this (Asura)
सन्ध्यात: प्रथमम्-before evening
इति धात्रा जगदिषेthus Thou were requested by Brahmaa
As the Asura was armed with a mace, Thou too flourished a mighty mace and sportingly gave him battle. As the clang of the clashing maces resounded in the sky, the hoasts of gods assembled eagerly to see the dual. Brahmaa cried out requesting Thee to kill the Asura before nightfall.
गदोन्मर्दे तस्मिंस्तव खलु गदायां दितिभुवो
गदाघाताद्भूमौ झटिति पतितायामहह! भो: ।
मृदुस्मेरास्यस्त्वं दनुजकुलनिर्मूलनचणं
महाचक्रं स्मृत्वा करभुवि दधानो रुरुचिषे ॥५॥
गदोन्मर्दे तस्मिन्-in that fight with the maces
तव खलु गदायां(when) Thy mace indeed
दितिभुव:(and) of the Asura's
गदा-घातात्-by a blow of the mace
भूमौ झटिति पतितायाम्-on the ground suddenly fell
अहह भो:what a wonder O Lord!
मृदुस्मेर-आस्य:-त्वम्with a gentle smile on Thy face, Thou
दनुजकुल-निर्मूलचणम्famous as the destroyer of the entire Asura race
महाचक्रम् स्मृत्वा(that) great discus invoking (Sudarshana)
करभुवि दधानोin the palms of Thy hands holding
रुरुचिषेlooked magnificent
During that combat, the Asura's stroke suddenly knocked down Thy mace to the ground. With a smile on Thy face Thou invoked Thy discus (Sudarshana) which is well known for slaying of the race of the Asuras. Thou looked magnificent as the invoked discus placed itself in Thy hands.
तत: शूलं कालप्रतिमरुषि दैत्ये विसृजति
त्वयि छिन्दत्येनत् करकलितचक्रप्रहरणात् ।
समारुष्टो मुष्ट्या स खलु वितुदंस्त्वां समतनोत्
गलन्माये मायास्त्वयि किल जगन्मोहनकरी: ॥६॥
तत: शूलम्then, a trident
कालप्रतिम्-अरुषि दैत्येangry like Rudra the Destroyer, when the Asura
विसृजतिthrew (the trident)
त्वयि छिन्दति-Thou broke
एनत्this (tident)
कर-कलित-चक्र-प्रहरणात्by the blow of the discus held in Thy hand
समारुष्ट:greatly enraged
मुष्ट्या स खलुwith (his) fist he indeed
वितुदन्-त्वाम्hitting Thee
समतनोत् गलन्मायेdid employ against Thee, who are beyond, the effects of Maya
माया: त्वयि किलMaaya on Thee indeed
जगत्-मोहनकरी:(Maya) whose tricks can deceive the whole world
The Asura who was angry as the Destroyer Rudra, threw his trident at Thee, and Thou broke it with the discus in Thy hands.Greatly enraged he hit Thee with his fist and also employed tricks of Maya against Thee,which may deceive the whole world but does not effect Thee who are above all Maya.
भवच्चक्रज्योतिष्कणलवनिपातेन विधुते
ततो मायाचक्रे विततघनरोषान्धमनसम् ।
स्वपादाङ्गुष्ठेन श्रवणपदमूले निरवधी: ॥७॥
भवत्-चक्र-ज्योतिष्-कण-लव-निपातेनbeing hit by a powerful spark of Thy divine discus
विधुतेwere destroyed
तत: माया-चक्रेthen (when) the illusion created by the Asura
वितत-घन-रोष-अन्ध-मनसम्whose mind was blinded by intense rage
गरिष्ठाभि:-मुष्टि-प्रहृतिभि:-with strong blows of his fist
अभिघ्नन्तम्-असुरम्the Asura who was hitting Thee
स्व-पाद-अङुगुष्ठेनwith Thy big toe
श्रवण-पद-मूलेat the base of (his) ear
निरवधी:Thou did strike
When the illusions created by the Asura were all dispersed being hit by a powerful spark of Thy divine discus, the Asura's mind was overcome by intense rage. He then attacked Thee with strong blows of his heavy fists, whereupon Thou struck him with a powerful blow with Thy big toe at the base of his ear.
महाकाय: सो॓ऽयं तव चरणपातप्रमथितो
गलद्रक्तो वक्त्रादपतदृषिभि: श्लाघितहति: ।
तदा त्वामुद्दामप्रमदभरविद्योतिहृदया
मुनीन्द्रा: सान्द्राभि: स्तुतिभिरनुवन्नध्वरतनुम् ॥८॥
महाकाय: स:-अयम्that Asura of gigantic proportions
तव चरण-पात-प्रमथित:by the blow of Thy foot crushed
गलत्-रक्त: वक्त्रात्-with blood flowing out of his mouth
ऋषिभि: श्लाघित-हति:the sages praised his slaying
तदा त्वाम्-then to Thee
उद्दाम-प्रमदभर-विद्योति-हृदयाwith their hearts full and brimming with joy
मुनीन्द्रा:the great sages
सान्द्राभि: स्तुतिभि:-with verses full of deep meaning
अध्वर-तनुम्O Thou! The Embodiment of Yajna
That gigantic Asura crushed by the powerful blow of Thy foot, fell down with blood flowing out of his mouth. The sages praised his slaying. O Thou! Who are the embodiment of Yajna! As they did so their hearts were full and brimming with joy. They sang hymns with deep meaning.
त्वचि छन्दो रोमस्वपि कुशगणश्चक्षुषि घृतं
चतुर्होतारोऽङ्घ्रौ स्रुगपि वदने चोदर इडा ।
ग्रहा जिह्वायां ते परपुरुष कर्णे च चमसा
विभो सोमो वीर्यं वरद गलदेशेऽप्युपसद: ॥९॥
त्वचि छन्द:in Thy skin are the Vedic Metres
रोमसु-अपि कुशगण:-Thy hair are the Kush grass
चक्षुषि घृतम्Thy eyes are ghee
चतुर्होतार:-अङ्घ्रौThy feet are the four sacrificing priests
स्रुग्-अपि वदनेThy face is 'sruk' (the ladel used for offering)
च-उदर इडाand Thy stomach the 'ida' (the vessel used for keeping the ingredients for offering)
ग्रहा जिह्वायां तेThy tounge the soma pot
परपुरुषO Infinite Lord!
कर्णे च चमसाThy ears are the chamasas (vessel used for keeping the sacrificial remnants)
विभोO Lord!
सोमो वीर्यम्Thy virility is Soma
वरदO Bestower of Boons!
गलदेशे-अपि-उपसद:in Thy neck are the sacrifices called 'Upasat' (the subsidiary rites)
O Infinite Lord! In Thy skin are the Vedic Mantras, Thy hair are the 'kush' grass, Thy eyes are the ghee, Thy feet are the four sacrificing priests, Thy face is 'sruk',( the ladel for sacrifice) and Thy stomach is the 'Ida' (the vessel which holds the sacrificial ingredients), Thy tongue is the soma pot. O Lord! Thy ears are the chamasas (the vessel which holds the sacrificial remnants) and Thy virility is soma. O Bestower of Boons! in Thy neck are the sacrifices called Upasat, (the subsidiary rites). Thou are the embodiment of the holy Yagna.
महीयस्या मूर्त्या विमलतरकीर्त्या च विलसन् ।
स्वधिष्ण्यं सम्प्राप्त: सुखरसविहारी मधुरिपो
निरुन्ध्या रोगं मे सकलमपि वातालयपते ॥१०॥
मुनीन्द्रै:-इत्यादि-by the various great sages
स्तवन-मुखरै:-मोदित-मनाwho were intoning such hymns,
मोदित-मनाbeing delighted
महीयस्या मूर्त्याwith a spendid form and
विमलतर-कीर्त्या चwith unblemished glory
स्वधिष्ण्यं सम्प्राप्त:reaching Thy abode of Vaikunth
सुख-रस-विहारीO Thee! Reveling in Thy own Bliss!
मधुरिपोO Destroyer of Madhu!
निरुन्ध्या रोगम् मेdestroy ailments of mine
सकलम्-अपिall of them
वातालयपतेO Lord of Guruvaayur!
O Lord of Guruvaayur! O Destroyer of Madhu! Delighted with the hymns of the sages Thou shone with Thy huge and adorable form and taintless glory and retired to Thy abode of Vaikunth, revelling in Thy innate Bliss. May Thou be pleased to eradicate all my ailments.