Friday, April 29, 2011

Brahma Sutras - Part XXXXXXVIII

Section 1: Upasamharadarsanadhikaranam: Topic 8 (Sutras 24-25)

Brahman is the cause of the world.

Upasamharadarsananneti chenna kshiravaddhi II.1.24 (158)
If you object that Brahman without instruments cannot be the cause of the universe, because an agent is seen to collect materials for any construction, (we say) no, because (it is) like milk (turning into curds).
Upasamharadarsanat: because collection of materials is seen; Na: not; Iti chet: if it be said; Na: no; Kshiravat: like milk; Hi: because, as.
Darsanat: because of the seeing; Iti: thus; Chet: if; Vat: like, has the force of an instrumental case here. (See Sutra of Panini, Tena tulyam kriya etc.)
An objection that materials are necessary for the creation of the world is refuted.
Though Brahman is devoid of materials and instruments, He is yet the cause of the universe. If you object that an efficient cause like a potter is seen to use instruments and therefore Brahman cannot be the material cause as also the efficient cause, we reply that it is like milk turning into curds.
The objector, Purvapakshin, says: Workmen are found to collect materials to do their works. Brahman also must have required materials wherewith to create the world, but there was no other thing than Brahman before creation. He is one without a second. He could not have brought out His work of creation as there was no material, just as a potter could not have made his pots, if there had been no materials like earth, water, staffs, wheels, etc., before him.
This objection has no force. Materials are not required in every case. For instance, milk is itself transformed into curd. In milk no external agency is needed to change it into curds. If you say that in the case of milk heat is necessary for curdling the milk, we reply that heat merely accelerates the process of curdling. The curdling occurs through the inherent capacity of the milk. You cannot turn water into curds by the application of heat. The milk's capability of turning into curd is merely completed by the cooperation of auxiliary means.
Brahman manifests Himself in the form of the universe by His inscrutable power. He simply wills. The whole universe comes into being. Why cannot the Omnipotent Infinite Brahman create the world by His will-power (Sankalpa) alone without instruments and extraneous aids?
Brahman is Omnipotent and Infinite. Hence no extraneous aid or instrument is necessary for Him to create this world.
Thus Sruti also declares "There is no effect and no instrument known of Him, no one is seen like unto or better. His high power is revealed as manifold and inherent, acting as force and knowledge" (Svet. Up. VI.8).
Therefore, Brahman, although one only, is able to transform Himself as this universe of diverse effects without any instrument or extraneous aid, on account of His infinite powers.

Devadivadapi loke II.1.25 (159)
(The case of Brahman creating the world is) like that of gods and other beings in the world (in ordinary experience).
Devadivat: like gods and others (saints); Api: even, also; Loke: in the world.
The word 'vat' has the force of sixth case here. Another reading is 'Iti' (thus), instead of 'Api'.
The argument in support of Sutra 24 is brought forward.
An objector (or Purvapakshin) says: 'The example of milk turning into curds is not appropriate as it is an insentient thing. Intelligent agents like potters begin to do their work after providing themselves with a complete set of instruments. How then can it be said that Brahman, an intelligent Being, can do His work of creation without any auxiliary, without the aid of any constituent materials?' We reply, 'like gods and others.'
We see also that in the world gods and sages create particular things such as palaces, chariots, etc., by force of will, without external aid. Why cannot the Omnipotent Creator create the world by His will-power (Sat Sankalpa) or His infinite power of Maya?
Just as the spider projects out of itself the threads of its web, just as the female crane conceives without a male from hearing the sound of thunder, just as the lotus wanders from one lake to another without any means of conveyance so also the intelligent Brahman creates the world by itself without external instruments or aid.
The case of Brahman is different from that of potters and similar agents. No extraneous means is necessary for Brahman for creation. There is limitation in the creation of pots. The creation of Brahman cannot be limited by the conditions observed in the creation of pots. Brahman is Omnipotent.

Brahma Sutras - Part XXXXXXVII

Section 1: Itaravyapadesadhikaranam: Topic 7 (Sutras 21-23)

Brahman does not create evil.

Itaravyapadesaddhitakaranadidoshaprasaktih II.1.21 (155)
On account of the other (i.e., the individual soul) being stated (as non-different from Brahman) there would arise (in Brahman) the faults of not doing what is beneficial and the like.
Itaravypadesat: on account of the other being stated (as non-different from Brahman); Hitakaranadidoshaprasaktih: defects of not doing what is beneficial and the like would arise.
(Itara: other than being Brahman, i.e. the individual soul; Vyapadesat: from the designation, from the expression; Hita: good, beneficial; Akaranadi: not creating, etc.; Dosha: imperfection, defect, faults; Prasaktih: result, consequence.)
The discussions on the relation of the world to Brahman have been finished now. The question of the relation of the individual soul to Brahman is being raised by way of an objection in this Sutra.
In the previous Adhikarana, the oneness of the effect (world) with its cause (Brahman) has been established.
In this Sutra, the opponent or Purvapakshin raises an objection. He says, that if Brahman is the cause of the world, there is inappropriateness in that view because the scripture describes Jiva as being Brahman and, therefore, he will not cause harm to himself such as birth, death, old age, disease, by getting into the person of the body. A being which is itself absolutely pure, cannot take this altogether impure body as forming part of its Self.
The scripture declares the other, i.e., the embodied soul to be one with Brahman, "That is the Self". "Thou art That, O Svetaketu" (Chh. Up. VI.8.7). By stating that the individual soul is one with Brahman, there arises room for finding out a fault in the wisdom of Brahman, that He is not doing good to Himself by creating suffering and pain on account of repeated births and deaths for Himself. Will any one do what is harmful and unpleasant to himself? Will he not remember that he created the world? Will he not destroy it as the cause of his suffering? Brahman would have created a very beautiful world where everything would have been pleasant for the individual soul without the least pain or suffering. That is not so. Hence, Brahman is not the cause of the world as Vedanta maintains. As we see that what would be beneficial is not done, the hypothesis of the world having come out of an Intelligent Cause (Brahman) is not acceptable.

Adhikam tu bhedanirdesat II.1.22 (156)
But (Brahman, the Creator, is) something more (than the individual soul) on account of the statement in the Srutis (of difference) between the individual soul (and Brahman).
Adhikam: something more, greater than the Jiva; Tu: but; Bhedanirdesat:because of the pointing out of differences on account of the statement of difference. (Bheda: difference; Nirdesat: because of the pointing out).
The objection raised in Sutra 21 is refuted.
The word 'tu' (but) refutes the objection of the last Sutra. It discards the Purvapakha.
The Creator of the world is Omnipotent. He is not the imprisoned, embodied soul. The defects mentioned in the previous Sutra such as doing what is not beneficial and the like do not attach to that Brahman because as eternal freedom is His characteristic nature, there is nothing either beneficial to be done by Him or non-beneficial to be avoided by Him. Moreover, there is no obstruction to His knowledge and power, because He is Omniscient and Omnipotent. He is a mere witness. He is conscious of the unreality of the world and Jiva. He has neither good nor evil. Hence the creation of a universe of good and evil by Him is unobjectionable.
The Jiva is of a different nature. The defects mentioned in the previous Sutra belong to the Jiva only, so long as he is in a state of ignorance. The Srutis clearly point out the difference between the individual soul and the Creator in texts like "Verily, the Self is to be seen, to be heard, to be reflected and to be meditated upon" (Bri. Up. II.4.5). All these differences are imaginary or illusory on account of ignorance. When the individual soul attains knowledge of Brahman, he remembers his identity with Brahman. Then the whole phenomenon of plurality which springs from wrong knowledge disappears. There is neither the embodied soul nor the creator.
This Brahman is superior to the individual soul. The individual soul is not the creator of this universe. Hence the objection raised in Sutra 21 cannot stand. The possibility of faults clinging to Brahman is excluded.
Though Brahman assumes the form of the individual soul, yet He is not exhausted thereby. But He remains as something more, i.e., as the controller of the individual soul. This is obvious from the distinction pointed out in the Sruti. Hence there is no occasion for the fault spoken of in Sutra 21.

Asmadivacca tadanupapattih II.1.23 (157)
And because the case is similar to that of stones, etc., (produced from the same earth), the objection raised is untenable.
Asmadivat: like stone, etc.; Cha: and; Tat anupapattih: its untenability, unreasonableness, impossibility; (Tat: of that; Tasya: its, of the objection raised in Sutra 21).
The objection raised in Sutra 21 is further refuted.
The objector may say that Brahman which is Knowledge and Bliss and unchangeable cannot be the cause of a universe of diversity, of good and bad. This objection cannot stand, because we see that from the same material earth, stones of different values like diamonds, lapis lazuli, crystals and also ordinary stones are produced. From the seeds which are placed in one and the same ground various plants are seen to spring up, such as sandalwood and cucumbers, which show the greatest difference in their leaves, blossoms, fruits, fragrance, juice, etc. One and the same food produces various effects such as blood, hair, nail, etc. So also, one Brahman also may contain in itself the distinction of the individual selves and the highest Self and may produce various effects. So also from Brahman which is Bliss and Knowledge, a world of good and evil can be created.
Hence the objection imagined by others against the doctrine of Brahman being the cause of the world cannot be maintained.
Moreover, the scripture declares that all effects have their origin in speech only. The dreaming man is one but the dream pictures are many. These are hinted at by the word 'Cha' of the Sutra.

Narayaneeyam - Part XXXXXXVI

Dashaka 66
उपयातानां सुदृशां कुसुमायुधबाणपातविवशानाम् ।
अभिवाञ्छितं विधातुं कृतमतिरपि ता जगाथ वाममिव ॥१॥
उपयातानांwho had come
सुदृशांthe beautiful women
कुसुमायुध-(whom) Cupid's
बाण-पात-arrows strike
विवशानाम्(had made) helpless
विधातुंto fulfil
कृतमति:-अपिhaving decided though
ता: जगाथto them spoke
वामम्-इवunfavourable like
Thou had decided to fulfil the desire of the beautiful women who had come to Thee. They were helpless as they were struck by Cupid's arrow for Thee. Yet Thou first spoke to them in an unfavourable manner.
गगनगतं मुनिनिवहं श्रावयितुं जगिथ कुलवधूधर्मम् ।
धर्म्यं खलु ते वचनं कर्म तु नो निर्मलस्य विश्वास्यम् ॥२॥
गगन-गतंwaiting in the skies
मुनि-निवहंthe host of sages
श्रावयितुंto make them hear
जगिथ(Thou) stated
कुल-वधू-धर्मम्the housewives' duties
धर्म्यम् खलुin accordance of Dharma indeed
ते वचनंThy words
कर्म तु नोactions but not
निर्मलस्यof Thee who are pure
विश्वास्यम्(are) to be followed
To the hearing of the sages assembled in the skies, Thou stated the duties of the housewives, for the benefit of the world. Indeed, Thy words are to be followed for they are in accordance with the Dharma. But the actions of Thee who are ever pure, should not be practiced by others, because Thy actions do not always conform to the good and bad standards of the world.
आकर्ण्य ते प्रतीपां वाणीमेणीदृश: परं दीना: ।
मा मा करुणासिन्धो परित्यजेत्यतिचिरं विलेपुस्ता: ॥३॥
आकर्ण्य तेhearing Thy
प्रतीपां वाणीम्-unfavourable speech
एणीदृश:the doe eyed damsels
परं दीना:very much grief striken
मा माdo not O do not
करुणासिन्धोO Thou ocean of compassion
परित्यज-इति-foresake thus
अचिरंfor long
विलेपु:-ता:pleaded they
On hearing Thy unfavourable speech, those doe eyed women were very much grief striken. For long did they plead saying 'O Thou ocean of compassion, do not, O do not foresake us.'
तासां रुदितैर्लपितै: करुणाकुलमानसो मुरारे त्वम् ।
ताभिस्समं प्रवृत्तो यमुनापुलिनेषु काममभिरन्तुम् ॥४॥
तासां रुदितै:-by their weeping
लपितै:(and) pleading
करुणा-आकुल-with pity moved
मानस:Thy mind
मुरारे त्वम्O Slayer of Mur! Thou
ताभि:-समम्with them
प्रवृत्त:set out
यमुना-पुलिनेषुon the Yamunaa sand banks
कामम्-अभिरन्तुम्desiring to sport freely
O Thou! Slayer of Mura! Moved with pity by their weeping and pleading, Thou set out to sport freely with them on the sand banks of Yamunaa river.
चन्द्रकरस्यन्दलसत्सुन्दरयमुनातटान्तवीथीषु ।
गोपीजनोत्तरीयैरापादितसंस्तरो न्यषीदस्त्वम् ॥५॥
चन्द्रकर-the moon light
स्यन्द-लसत्-flowing and shining
यमुना-तटान्त-on the Yamunaa banks
वीथीषुand the sand banks
गोपीजन-the Gopikaas
उत्तरीयै:-(by their) upper garment
आपादित-संस्तर:spread out bed
न्यषीद:-त्वम्sat down Thou
The sand banks of Yamunaa was lit by beautifully flowing and shining moon light. There Thou sat down on the bed which was made by the Gopikaas by spreading out their upper garment.
सुमधुरनर्मालपनै: करसंग्रहणैश्च चुम्बनोल्लासै: ।
गाढालिङ्गनसङ्गैस्त्वमङ्गनालोकमाकुलीचकृषे ॥६॥
सुमधुर्-(with) sweet
नर्म-आलपनै:playful talks
कर-संग्रहणै:-चand by hands holding
चुम्बन-उल्लासै:and by the joy of kisses
गाढ-आलिङ्गन-सङ्गै:-and by close hearty embraces
अङ्गना-लोकम्-the women folk
आकुली-चकृषेdelighted immensely
By Thy sweet and playful talks, by holding of hands, by the joy of kisses, and by close hearty embraces, Thou delighted the women folk immensely.
वासोहरणदिने यद्वासोहरणं प्रतिश्रुतं तासाम् ।
तदपि विभो रसविवशस्वान्तानां कान्त सुभ्रुवामदधा: ॥७॥
वासो-हरण-दिनेon the day when the clothes were stolen
यत्-वासो-हरणम्that stealing of clothes
प्रतिश्रुतं तासाम्was promised to them (to the gopis)
तत्-अपि विभोthat also O Lord!
रस-विवश-स्वान्तानांto bliss overcome minds
कान्तO Charming One!
सुभ्रुवाम्-(to them) the beautiful eyed ones
अदधा:Thou gave (the promise)
On the day of the stealing of clothes, O Lord! Thou had promised to them the stealing of clothes (the removal of the sense of ego). That also, O charming One! Thou gave to the beautiful eyed women, whose minds were overcome with bliss.
कन्दलितघर्मलेशं कुन्दमृदुस्मेरवक्त्रपाथोजम् ।
नन्दसुत त्वां त्रिजगत्सुन्दरमुपगूह्य नन्दिता बाला: ॥८॥
कन्दलित-sprouting of
घर्म-लेशंperspiration drops(and with)
कुन्द-मृदु-स्मेर-jasmine like soft smile
वक्त्र-पाथोजम्and face like a lotus
नन्दसुत त्वांO Thee the son of Nanda
त्रिजगत्-सुन्दरम्-the most resplendent one in the worlds
नन्दिता: बाला:were very delighted, the damsels
O Son of Nanda! The most resplendent one in the three worlds! Perspiration drops sprouted on Thy body. Thy lotus face was soft with a jasmine like smile. The damsels embracing Thee were very delighted.
विरहेष्वङ्गारमय: शृङ्गारमयश्च सङ्गमे हि त्वम् नितरामङ्गारमयस्तत्र पुनस्सङ्गमेऽपि चित्रमिदम् ॥९॥
विरहेषु-in seperation
अङ्गारमय:(Thou) are like burning charcoal
शृङ्गारमय:-च(and) love embodied
सङ्गमेin union
हि त्वम्indeed are Thou
अङ्ग-अरमय:O Dear One! (Thou) gave delight
तत्र पुन:-there again
सङ्गमे-अपिin union also
चित्रम्-इदम्wonderful it is
In seperation with Thee, Thou are unbearable as a burning charcoal. In union indeed Thou are an absolute embodiment of love. O Dear One! Wonderful it indeed is that in union also, here again the women were delighted.
राधातुङ्गपयोधरसाधुपरीरम्भलोलुपात्मानम् ।
आराधये भवन्तं पवनपुराधीश शमय सकलगदान् ॥१०॥
राधा-तुङ्ग-पयोधर-Raadhaa's bulging breasts
साधु-परीरम्भ-nicely (to) embrace
लोलुप-आत्मानम्eager with a mind
आराधये भवन्तं(I) worship Thee
पवनपुराधीशO Lord of Guruvaayur!
शमय सकल-गदान्eradicate all the ailments.
O Lord of Guruvaayur! I worship Thee who are eager in mind to nicely embrace the bulging breasts of Raadhaa. I pray to Thee to eradicate all the ailments.

Narayaneeyam - Part XXXXXXV

Dashaka 65
गोपीजनाय कथितं नियमावसाने
मारोत्सवं त्वमथ साधयितुं प्रवृत्त: ।
सान्द्रेण चान्द्रमहसा शिशिरीकृताशे
प्रापूरयो मुरलिकां यमुनावनान्ते ॥१॥
गोपीजनायfor the Gopikaas
कथितंsaid (promised)
नियम-अवसाने(when their) vows had ended
मार-उत्सवंthe love-god festival
त्वम्-अथThou then
साधयितुं प्रवृत्त:to carry out (fulfill) decided
सान्द्रेण चान्द्रमहसाwith bright light of the full moon
शिशिरी-कृत-आशेand cooled all the directions
प्रापूरय: मुरलिकां(Thou) filled well (played) the flute
यमुना-वन-अन्तेin the forests on the banks of Yamunaa
Thou then decided to carry out the festival of the love god, which Thou had promised to the Gopikaas when their vows had ended. One night, with the bright light of the full moon, when all the directions were cool, in the forest on the banks of the river Yamunaa, Thou resoundingly played the flute.
सम्मूर्छयन्तमखिलं भुवनान्तरालम् ।
त्वद्वेणुनादमुपकर्ण्य विभो तरुण्य-
स्तत्तादृशं कमपि चित्तविमोहमापु: ॥२॥
सम्मूर्छनाभि:-by the seven (ascending and descending) notes
स्वरमण्डलाभि:in a musical strain
भुवन-अन्तरालम्in the world space
त्वत्-वेणु-नादम्-Thy flute resounding
उपकर्ण्य विभोhearing (which) O All pervading Lord!
तरुण्य:-तत्-तादृशंthe damsels, that compared to that (uncompareable)
कम्-अपिsome (sort of)
चित्त-विमोहम्-आपु:mind captivation attained to
O All pervading Lord! In the resounding sound of Thy flute the seven ascending and descending notes emerged in a musical strain and enchanted everything in the world space. Hearing which the damsels attained an unparalleled and uncomparable captivating state of their mind.
ता गेहकृत्यनिरतास्तनयप्रसक्ता:
कान्तोपसेवनपराश्च सरोरुहाक्ष्य: ।
सर्वं विसृज्य मुरलीरवमोहितास्ते
कान्तारदेशमयि कान्ततनो समेता: ॥३॥
गेह-कृत्य-निरता:-who were in household duties engaged
तनय-प्रसक्ता:(or) were their children tending
कान्त-उपसेवन-परा:-चand in the husband's service eager
सरोरुह-आक्ष्य:(they) the lotus eyed damsels
सर्वं विसृज्यeverything abondoning
मुरली-रव-(by) the flute sound
मोहिता:-तेcaptivated they (the damsels)
कान्तार-देशम्-to the forest place
अयि कान्त-तनोO Resplendent One!
O Resplendent One! The lotus eyed damsels were captivated by the sound of Thy flute. They, who were engaged in the household duties, or were taking care of their children, or were engaged in serving their husbands, abondoned everything and came rushing to the forest place.
वेणुप्रणादमुपकर्ण्य कृतार्धभूषा: ।
त्वामागता ननु तथैव विभूषिताभ्य-
स्ता एव संरुरुचिरे तव लोचनाय ॥४॥
काश्चित्-some (damsels)
निज-अङ्ग-their own bodies
परिभूषणम्-(with) dress and jewels
वेणु-प्रणादम्-the resounding flute sound
कृत-अर्ध-भूषा:having adorned half way only
त्वाम्-आगता:to Thee came
ननु तथा-एवindeed thus only
विभूषिताभ्य:than those who were fully adorned
ता एवthey only
संरुरुचिरेwere more pleasing
तव लोचनायfor Thy eyes
Some of the damsels were dressing up and adorning their bodies with jewels. As they heard the resounding sound of the flute, they came to Thee having adorned themselves halfway. For Thy eyes they were far more pleasing indeed than those who were fully adorned.
हारं नितम्बभुवि काचन धारयन्ती
काञ्चीं च कण्ठभुवि देव समागता त्वाम् ।
हारित्वमात्मजघनस्य मुकुन्द तुभ्यं
व्यक्तं बभाष इव मुग्धमुखी विशेषात् ॥५॥
हारं नितम्ब-भुविnecklace on the hip area
काचन धारयन्तीsomeone wearing
काञ्चीं चand the waist band
कण्ठ-भुविin the neck area
देवO Lord!
समागता त्वाम्came to Thee
हारित्वम्-the attractiveness
आत्म-जघनस्यof her own hips
मुकुन्द तुभ्यंO Mukund for Thee
व्यक्तं बभाष इवclearly declared as if
मुग्धमुखीthe chaming faced one
विशेषात्in particular
O Lord! One woman, in her haste, came to Thee wearing a necklace on the hips and the waist band in the neck area. O Mukund! It was as if the charming faced one clearly indicated to Thee in particular the attractiveness of her own hips.
काचित् कुचे पुनरसज्जितकञ्चुलीका
व्यामोहत: परवधूभिरलक्ष्यमाणा ।
त्वामाययौ निरुपमप्रणयातिभार-
राज्याभिषेकविधये कलशीधरेव ॥६॥
काचित् कुचेsome one ,on her breasts
पुन:-असज्जित-again not wearing
कञ्चुलीकाthe upper garment
व्यामोहत:because of excitement
परवधूभि:-by other women
अलक्ष्यमाणाalso not noticed
त्वाम्-आययौto Thee came
निरुपम-प्रणय-(as if) unparalleled (intense) love
अतिभार-intense (weighed down by)
राज्य-अभिषेक-विधयेkingdom coronation celebration
कलशीधर-इवwater pitchers as if
Some another woman, in her excitement came to Thee not wearing any upper garment on her breasts. She was not noticed in such a state by the other women, who were as excited. It was as if she was weighed down by the unparalleled intense love she carried as water pitchers as breasts for the celebration of Thy coronation in the kingdom of love.
काश्चित् गृहात् किल निरेतुमपारयन्त्य-
स्त्वामेव देव हृदये सुदृढं विभाव्य ।
देहं विधूय परचित्सुखरूपमेकं
त्वामाविशन् परमिमा ननु धन्यधन्या: ॥७॥
काश्चित् गृहात्some one from home
किल निरेतुम्-indeed to come out
अपारयन्त्य:being unable
त्वाम्-एव देवThee alone O Lord!
हृदये सुदृढं विभाव्यin heart firmly meditating
देहं विधूयbody giving up
पर-चित्-सुख-the Supreme conscious bliss
रूपम्-एकं त्वाम्-form of non-dual, in Thee
परम्-इमा:-ननुvery much these (women) indeed
धन्य-धन्या:(were) most fortunate
Some of them were indeed unable to come out from home. O Lord! They meditated on Thee firmly in their hearts. With the result, they gave up their bodies and merged with Thy non dual form and attained the Supreme consciousness bliss. These indeed were the most fortunate ones.
जारात्मना न परमात्मतया स्मरन्त्यो
नार्यो गता: परमहंसगतिं क्षणेन ।
तं त्वां प्रकाशपरमात्मतनुं कथञ्चि-
च्चित्ते वहन्नमृतमश्रममश्नुवीय ॥८॥
जारात्मनाby the feeling of paramour
न परमात्मतयाnot by the feeling of godliness
स्मरन्त्य:thinking of Thee
नार्य: गता:the women attained
परमहंसगतिंto the state of liberation
क्षणेन तं त्वांin a moment, that Thou
प्रकाश-परमात्म-तनुंresplendent supreme form
कथञ्चित्-in any manner
चित्ते वहन्-in the mind holding (meditating)
अमृतम्-the state of immortality
अश्रमम्-अश्नुवीयeffortlessly may I attain
These women thought of Thee and remembered Thee not with the feeling of godliness, Paramaatmaa, but with the feeling of paramour. In a moment, they attained the state of liberation with Thee. O Supreme Resplendent form! Meditating in the mind in some or the other manner may I attain the state of immortality effortlessly.
अभ्यागताभिरभितो व्रजसुन्दरीभि-
र्मुग्धस्मितार्द्रवदन: करुणावलोकी ।
विश्वैकहृद्य हर मे पवनेश रोगान् ॥९॥
अभ्यागताभि:-by those who had come
अभित:all around
व्रजसुन्दरीभि:-(by) the beautiful women fo Vraja
मुग्ध-स्मित-आर्द्र-वदन:(with) a captivating smile lit on the face
करुणा-अवलोकी(Thou) glancing with compassion
निस्सीम-कान्ति-unbound splenderous
जलधि:-त्वम्-ocean Thou
अवेक्ष्यमाण:were looked at (by the women)
विश्वैकहृद्यO Stealer of the world's heart!
हर मेrid me of my
पवनेशO Lord of Guruvaayur!
The beautiful women of Vraja, who had come and gathered all around Thee, were looking at Thee. Thou had a captivating smile lighting Thy face, glancing with compssion, and Thou who are like an unbound ocean of splendour, O Hari! The stealer of the world's heart! rid me, O Lord of Guruvaayur! of my ailments.

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Brahma Sutras - Part XXXXXXVI

Section 1: Arambhanadhikaranam: Topic 6 (Sutras 14-20)

The world (effect) is non-different from Brahman (the cause).

Tadananyatvamarambhanasabdadibhyah II.1.14 (148)
The non-difference of them (i.e., of cause and effect) results from such terms as 'origin' and the like.
Tat: (its, of the universe); Ananyatvam: non-difference; Arambhana sabdadibhyah: from words like 'origin', etc.
That the effect is not different from the cause is shown here.
In Sutra 13, the Sutrakara spoke from the point of view of Parinamavada and refuted the objection raised by the opponent that Brahman cannot be the material cause as it contradicts perception. In Parinamavada, Brahman actually undergoes transformation or modification. Now the same objection is overthrown from the view point of Vivartavada. In Vivartavada there is only apparent modification. Rope appears as a snake. It is not transformed into an actual snake. This is the doctrine of Advaita of Sri Sankara.
In the previous Sutra the simile of the ocean and the waves was stated, accepting the apparent variety of objects. But in reality, cause and effect are one even now. This is clear from the word 'Arambhana' (beginning), just as by knowing a lump of clay, all clay will be known. Name is only a verbal modification. The true being is only clay. A pot is only clay even now. Similarly, the world is only Brahman even now. It is wrong to say that oneness and manifoldness are both true as in the case of ocean and waves, etc. The word 'eva' in 'Mrittiketyeva' shows that all diversity is unreal. The soul is declared to be one with Brahman.
The objector or Purvapakshin says: 'If there is only one Truth viz., Brahman, the diverse objects of perception will be negated. The ethical injunction will become useless. All the texts embodying injunctions and prohibitions will lose their purport if the distinction on which their validity depends does not really exist. Moreover, the science of liberation of the soul will have no reality, if the distinction of teacher and the student on which it depends is not real. There would be no bondage and hence no liberation. As the science of the soul itself is unreal, it cannot lead to the Reality. If the doctrine of release is untrue, how can we maintain the truth of the absolute unity of the Self?
But these objects have no force because the whole phenomenal existence is regarded as true as long as the knowledge of Brahman has not arisen, just as the dream creatures are regarded to be true till the waking state arrives. When we wake up after dreams, we know the dream world to be false but the knowledge of dreams is not false. Moreover, even dreams sometimes forebode the imminent reality of death. The reality of realisation of Brahman cannot be said to be illusory because it destroys ignorance and leads to the cessation of illusion.

Bhave chopalabdheh II.1.15 (149)
And (because) only on the existence (of the cause) (the effect) is experienced.
Bhave: on the existence; Cha: and; Upalabdheh: is experienced.
The argument begun in Sutra 14 as to how it follows that the effect (world) is inseparable from its material cause, Brahman, is continued.
The effect is perceived only when the cause is present in it; otherwise not. A pot or cloth will exist even if the potter or the weaver is absent, but it will not exist if the clay or thread is absent. This proves that the effect is not different from the cause. The Chhandogya Upanishad says, "All these created things, O my son, originate from Sat, i.e., Brahman, rest in Him and eventually dissolve in Him" (VI-8-4).
The objector says: There is no recognition of fire in the smoke. The smoke being the effect of fire, ought to show fire in it. To this we reply that smoke is really the effect of damp fuel. The damp fuel comes in contact with fire and throws off its earthly particles in the form of smoke. The smoke and the fuel are identical. We can recognise the fuel in the smoke. This is proved by the fact that the smoke has smell just as the fuel has. The smoke is generally of the same nature as that of the fuel.
The phenomena of the universe manifest only because Brahman exists. They cannot certainly appear without Brahman. Therefore the world (effect) is not different from Brahman, the cause.

Sattvaccavarasya II.1.16 (150)
And on account of the posterior (i.e., the effect which comes after the cause) existing (as the cause before creation).
Sattvat: Because of the existence; Cha: and; Avarasya: of the posterior, i.e., of the effect as it comes after the cause, i.e., of the world.
The argument begun in Sutra 14 is continued.
The scripture says that the effect (the world) existed in its causal aspect (Brahman) before the creation.
"In the beginning, my dear, Sadeva somyedamagra asit, this was only existence" (Chh. Up). "Atma va idam eka agra asit, verily in the beginning this was Self, one only" (Ait. Ar. 2.4.1). "Brahma va idamagra asit. Before creation, this universe existed as Brahman" (Bri. Up. 1.4.10).
The Upanishads declare that the universe had its being in the cause, Brahman, before creation. It was one with Brahman. As the world was non-different from the cause before creation, it continues to be non-different after creation also.
The effect (world) is non-different from the cause (Brahman) because it is existent in the cause, identically even, prior to its manifestation, though in time it is posterior.
A thing which does not exist in another thing by the self of the latter is not produced from that other thing. For instance, oil is not produced from sand. We can get oil from the groundnut because it exists in the seed, though in latency, but not from sand, because it does not exist in it. The existence is the same both in the world and in Brahman. As everything exists in Brahman, so it can come out of it.
Brahman is in all time neither more nor less than that which is. So the effect also (the world) is in all time only that which is. That which is, is one only. Hence the effect is non-different from the cause.

Asadvyapadesanneti chet na dharmantarena vakyaseshat II.1.17 (151)
If it be said that on account of (the effect) being described as that which is not, (the effect does) not (exist before creation), we reply 'not so', because the term 'that which is not' denotes another characteristic or attribute (as is seen) from the latter part of the text.
Asadvyapadesat: on account of its being described as non-existent; Na: not;Iti chet: if it be said; Na: no; Dharmantarena: by another attribute or characteristic; Vakyaseshat: from the latter part of the text or passage, because of the complementary passage.
The argument that the world had no existence before creation is refuted.
From the word 'Asat', literally meaning non-existence, in the Sruti, it may be argued that before creation the world had no existence. But that argument cannot stand as the latter part of the same text uses epithets other than "non-existent" to describe the condition of the world before creation. We understand from this that the world was existent before creation. This is established by reasoning also because something cannot come out of nothing and also by clear statements on other texts of Sruti. "Asad va idam agra asit" - Asat was this verily in the beginning (Tait. Up. II-7-1).
"Asat eva agre asit" - This universe was at first but non-existent. Asat indeed was this in the beginning. From it verily proceeded the Sat (Chh. Up. III.19.1). The latter part of the passage is "Tatsadasit" (That was existent). The word 'non-existent' (asat) does not certainly mean absolute non-existence, but that the universe did not exist in a gross, differentiated state. It existed in an extremely subtle unmanifested state. It was not differentiated. It had not yet developed name and form. The world was projected. Then it became gross, and developed name and form. You can get the meaning if you go through the latter part of the passage 'It became existent.' "It grew."
It is absurd to say that non-existence (Asat) existed. Therefore, Sat means manifest, i.e. having name and form, whereas Asat simply means fine, subtle and unmanifested. 'Asat' refers to another attribute of the effect, namely non-manifestation. The words Sat and Asat refer to two attributes of one and the same object, namely to its gross or manifested condition and subtle or unmanifested condition.
Asad va idamagra asit. Tato vai sadajayata. Tadatmanam svayamkuruta. Tasmat tatsukritamuchyata ita. Yadvai tatsukritam. Asat indeed was this in the beginning. From it verily proceeded the Sat. That made itself its Self. Therefore, it is said to be self-made.
The words "Asat made itself its Self" clears up any doubt as to the real meaning of the word "that". If the word "Asat" meant absolute non-existence, then there will be a contradiction in terms, because non-existence can never make itself the Self of anything. The word "Asit" or "was" becomes absurd when applied to "Asat" because absolute non-existence can never be said to exist and 'was' means 'existed'. An absolute non-existence can have no relation with time past or present. Further, it cannot have any agency also as we find in the passage, "It made itself its Self." Hence the word 'Asat' should be explained as a subtle state of an object.

Yukteh sabdantaracca II.1.18 (152)
From reasoning and from another Sruti text (the same is clear. This relation between cause and effect is established.)
Yukteh: from reasoning; Sabda-antarat: from another Sruti text; Cha: and.
That the effect exists before its origination and is non-different from the cause follows from reasoning and also from a further scriptural passage or another text of the Vedas.
The same fact is clear from logic or reasoning also. Otherwise, everything could have been produced from anything. If non-being is the cause, then why should there be an inevitable sequence? Why should curds be produced from milk and not from mud? It is impossible even within thousands of years to bring about an effect which is different from its cause. Particular causes produce particular effects only. This is a power in the cause which produces the effect. The relation of cause and effect (e.g., the relation of mud and pot) is a relation of identity. The cause of our thinking and saying 'the pot exists' is the fact that the lump of clay assumes a particular form of a neck, hollow belly, etc., while the material remains as clay only. On the contrary we think and say 'the jar does not exist', when the clay pot is broken into pieces. Hence existence and non-existence show only their different conditions. Non-existence in this connection does not mean absolute non-existence. This is reasoning or Yukti.
Just as an actor puts on many disguises and is yet the same man, so also the Ultimate Cause (Brahman) appears as these diverse objects and yet is the same.
Hence the cause exists before the effects and is non-different from the effect.
The effect exists in the cause in an unmanifested state. It is manifested during creation. That is all. An absolutely non-existent thing like the horns of a hare can never come into existence. The cause cannot produce altogether a new thing which was not existing in it already.
Further, we find from the well-known passage of the Chhandogya Upanishad, "In the beginning, my dear, there was only existence, one without a second" (Chh. Up. VI-2-1), that the effect exists even before creation and is non-different from its cause.
The author now gives some illustrations in order to confirm the doctrine that effect is identical with the cause.

Patavacca II.1.19 (153)
And like a piece of cloth.
Patavat: like a piece of cloth; Cha: and.
An example in support of Sutra 17 is presented.
Just as a rolled or folded piece of cloth is subsequently unrolled or unfolded, so also the world which rested unmanifested before creation becomes afterwards manifested. The world is like a folded cloth before creation. It is like a cloth that is spread out after creation. A folded cloth is not seen as a cloth till it is spread out. The threads are not seen as a cloth till they are woven. Even so, the effect is in the cause and is identical with the cause. In the folded state you cannot make out whether it is a cloth or anything else. But when it is spread out you can clearly know that it is a cloth. In the state of dissolution (Pralaya) the world exists in a seed state or potential condition in Brahman.
There are no names and forms. The universe is in an undifferentiated or unmanifested state. It takes a gross form after creation. The names and forms are differentiated and manifested.
As a piece of cloth is not different from the threads, so the effect (world) is not different from its cause (Brahman).
The word "Cha" (and) of the Sutra shows that other illustrations like the seed and the tree may also be given here.
When the cloth is folded, you do not know of what definite length and width it is. But when it is unfolded you know all these particulars. You also know that the cloth is not different from the folded object. The effect, the piece of cloth, is unmanifested as long as it exists in its cause, i.e., the threads. It becomes manifest and is clearly seen on account of the operations of shuttle, loom, weaver, etc.
The conclusion is that the effect is not different from the cause.

Yatha cha pranadi II.1.20 (154)
And as in the case of the different Pranas or Vital airs.
Yatha: as; Cha: and; Pranadi: in the case of Pranas or vital airs.
Another illustration in support of Sutra 17 is presented.
The word 'Cha' (and) in the Sutra shows that the last illustration of the piece of cloth and the present one of life functions should be read together as one illustration.
When the five different vital airs are controlled by the practice of Pranayama, they merge in the chief Prana, the cause which regulates breathing. Mere life only is maintained. All other functions such as bending and stretching of the limbs etc., are stopped. This shows that the various vital airs, the effects, are not different from their cause, the chief Prana. The different vital airs are only modifications of the chief or Mukhyaprana. So is the case with all effects. They are not different from the cause.
Thus it is established that the effect, the world, is identical with its cause, Brahman. Therefore, by knowing Brahman everything is known. As the whole world is an effect of Brahman and non-different from it, the promise held out in the scriptural text 'what is not heard is heard, what is not perceived is perceived, what is not known is known' (Chh. Up. VI.I.3) is fulfilled.

Brahma Sutras - Part XXXXXXV

Section 1: Bhoktrapattyadhikaranam: Topic 5 (Sutra 13)

The distinctions of enjoyer and enjoyed do not oppose unity.

Bhoktrapatteravibhagaschet syallokavat II.1.13 (147)
If it be said (that if Brahman be the cause then) on account of (the objects of enjoyment) turning into the enjoyer, non-distinction (between the enjoyer and the objects enjoyed) would result, we reply that such distinction may exist nevertheless as is experienced commonly in the world.
Bhoktri: one who enjoys and suffers; Apatteh: from the objections, if it be objected; Avibhagah: non-distinction; Chet: if it be said; Syat: may exist;Lokavat: as is experienced in the world.
Another objection based on reasoning is raised against Brahman being the cause and refuted.
The distinction between the enjoyer (the Jiva or the individual soul) and the objects of enjoyment is well known from ordinary experience. The enjoyers are intelligent, embodied souls while sound and the like are the objects of enjoyment. Ramakrishna for instance, is an enjoyer while the mango which he eats is an object of enjoyment. If Brahman is the material cause of the universe, then the world, the effect would be non-different from Brahman. The Jiva and Brahman being identical, the difference between the subject and the object would be annihilated, as the one would pass over into the other. Consequently, Brahman cannot be held to be the material cause of the universe, as it would lead to the sublation of the well-established distinction between the enjoyer and the objects of enjoyment.
If you say that the doctrine of Brahman being the cause of the world will lead to the enjoyer or spirit becoming one with the object of enjoyment (matter), we reply that such differentiation is appropriate in our case also, as instances are found in the universe in the case of ocean, its waves, foams and bubbles and of the Sun and its light. The ocean waves, foams and bubbles are one and yet diverse in the universe. Similarly, are the Brahman and the world. He created and entered into the creation. He is one with them, just as the ether in the sky and the ether in the pot are one although they appear to be separate.
Therefore it is possible to have difference and non-difference in things at the same time owing to the name and form. The enjoyers and the objects of enjoyment do not pass over into each other and yet they are not different from the Supreme Brahman. The enjoyers and objects of enjoyment are not different from the viewpoint of Brahman but they are different as enjoyers and objects enjoyed. There is no contradiction in this.
The conclusion is that the distinction of enjoyers and objects of enjoyment is possible, although both are non-different from Brahman, their Highest Cause, as the instance of the ocean, and its waves, foams and bubbles demonstrates.

Narayaneeyam - Part XXXXXXIV

Dashaka 64
आलोक्य शैलोद्धरणादिरूपं प्रभावमुच्चैस्तव गोपलोका: ।
विश्वेश्वरं त्वामभिमत्य विश्वे नन्दं भवज्जातकमन्वपृच्छन् ॥१॥
शैल-उद्धरण-the lifting of the mountain
आदि-रूपंand other feats (of Thee)
प्रभावम्-उच्चै:-the great powers
तवof Thee
गोप-लोका:the cowherds,
विश्वेश्वरंthe Lord of the Universe
त्वाम्-अभिमत्यThee considering
विश्वे नन्दंall of them to Nanda
भवत्-जातकम्-Thy horoscope
अन्वपृच्छन्asked again and again
The Gopaalakas witnessed Thy tremendous feats such as the lifting of the mountain and Thy great powers. They considered Thee to be the Lord of the Universe. All of them asked Nanda again and again about Thy horoscope.
गर्गोदितो निर्गदितो निजाय वर्गाय तातेन तव प्रभाव: ।
पूर्वाधिकस्त्वय्यनुराग एषामैधिष्ट तावत् बहुमानभार: ॥२॥
गर्ग-उदित:as Garg Muni had said
निर्गदित:was told
निजाय वर्गायfor his own clansmen
तातेन तव प्रभाव:by Thy father, Thy grreatness
पूर्वाधिक:more than before
त्वयि-अनुरागin Thee love
एषाम्-ऐधिष्टfor these (people) increased
तावत् बहुमानभार:thereafter, also great respect
Thy father told his clansmen of what sage Garg had prophesied about Thy greatness. Thence forward their love and also great respect for Thee increased much more than before.
ततोऽवमानोदिततत्त्वबोध: सुराधिराज: सह दिव्यगव्या।
उपेत्य तुष्टाव स नष्टगर्व: स्पृष्ट्वा पदाब्जं मणिमौलिना ते ॥३॥
तत:-अवमान-उदित-then by disgrace caused
तत्त्व-बोध:truth realising
सुराधिराज:the lord of the gods, Indra
सह दिव्य-गव्याwith the celestial cow (Kaamadhenu)
उपेत्य तुष्टावcoming (to Thee) praised
स नष्टगर्व:he whose pride was shattered
स्पृष्ट्वा पदाब्जंtouching Thy lotus feet
मणिमौलिना(by his) bejewelled crown
तेThy (feet)
Then as a result of being disgraced his pride was shattered and the lord of the gods, Indra realised the truth about Thee. He came to Thee with the divine cow Kaamadhenu, and sang Thy praises. He touched Thy lotus feet with his bejewelled crowned head.
स्नेहस्नुतैस्त्वां सुरभि: पयोभिर्गोविन्दनामाङ्कितमभ्यषिञ्चत् ।
ऐरावतोपाहृतदिव्यगङ्गापाथोभिरिन्द्रोऽपि च जातहर्ष: ॥४॥
स्नेह-स्नुतै:-with love overflowing (as milk)
त्वां सुरभि: पयोभि:-Thee, Surabhi (Kaamadhenu) with milk
गोविन्द-नाम-(Thee) with the name Govind
अङ्कितम्-अभ्यषिञ्चत्marked and anointed
ऐरावत-उपाहृत-(and) by Airaavata brought
दिव्य-गङ्गा-with the celestial Ganges
पाथोभि:-इन्द्र:-अपिwaters Indra also
च (अभिषिञ्चत्)and (annointed) (Thee)
The divine cow Kaamadhenu annointed Thee with her milk overflowing with love for Thee and so Thou were named 'Govinda', the Lord of cows. Airaavata the elephant of Indra brought the waters of the celestial Ganges and Indra also annointed Thee with it delightfully.
जगत्त्रयेशे त्वयि गोकुलेशे तथाऽभिषिक्ते सति गोपवाट: ।
नाकेऽपि वैकुण्ठपदेऽप्यलभ्यां श्रियं प्रपेदे भवत: प्रभावात् ॥५॥
जगत्त्रय-ईशेO Lord of the three Worlds
त्वयि गोकुलेशे(when) Thou as the Lord of Gokula
तथा-अभिषिक्ते सतिthus were annointed
नाके-अपिin heaven also
वैकुण्ठपदे-अपि-in Vaikuntha also
अलभ्यां श्रियंunattaainable, (such) prosperity
प्रपेदे भवत: प्रभावात्attained by Thy grace
O Lord of the three worlds! Thou were annointed as the Lord of Gokula. By Thy grace and glory, Gokula attained a prosperity unknown and unheard of in either the heavens or even in Vaikuntha.
कदाचिदन्तर्यमुनं प्रभाते स्नायन् पिता वारुणपूरुषेण ।
नीतस्तमानेतुमगा: पुरीं त्वं तां वारुणीं कारणमर्त्यरूप: ॥६॥
अन्तर्-यमुनंin the river Yamunaa
प्रभाते स्नायन् पिताvery early in the morning bathing, (Thy) father
वारुण-पूरुषेणby Varuna's emissary
नीत:-तम्-आनेतुम्-was taken away, him to bring back
अगा: पुरीं(Thou) went to the city
त्वं तां वारुणींThou ,of Varuna
कारण-मर्त्य-रूप:(to fulfill the) purpose of human form
Once very early in the morning, Thy father was bathing in the river Yamunaa. He was taken away by the emissary of Varuna. To bring him back and also to fulfill the purpose of Thy taking human form, Thou went to the city of Varuna .
ससम्भ्रमं तेन जलाधिपेन प्रपूजितस्त्वं प्रतिगृह्य तातम् ।
उपागतस्तत्क्षणमात्मगेहं पिताऽवदत्तच्चरितं निजेभ्य: ॥७॥
ससम्भ्रमंwith great surprise
तेन जलाधिपेनby him, the Lord of the waters
प्रपूजित:-त्वंwas well worshipped Thou
प्रतिगृह्य तातम्taking (Thy) father
तत्-क्षणम्-at once
आत्म-गेहंto Thy own house
पिता-अवदत्-father said
तत्-चरितंthat incident
निजेभ्य:to his clansmen
The Lord of the waters, Varuna, was taken by surprise at Thy unexpected appearance. Thou were well worshipped by him. Thou immediately returned home with Thy father. Thy father, Nanda, later narrated this incident to his clansmen.
हरिं विनिश्चित्य भवन्तमेतान् भवत्पदालोकनबद्धतृष्णान् ॥
निरीक्ष्य विष्णो परमं पदं तद्दुरापमन्यैस्त्वमदीदृशस्तान् ॥८॥
हरिं विनिश्चित्यas Hari knowing with certainty
भवन्तम्-एतान्Thee, to them
भवत्-पद-आलोकन-Thy state (of bliss) to see
बद्ध-तृष्णान्tied by (such a) thirst
निरीक्ष्य विष्णोseeing, O All pervading Lord!
परमं पदं तत्-supreme state that
दुरापम्-अन्यै:-not easily attainable by others
त्वम्-अदीदृश:-तान्Thou showed to them
The Gopas were convinced that Thou were definitely Hari Himself. O All pervading Lord! They were tied with the intense thirst of having a direct experience of Thy Supreme State. Thou showed them that state which is not attainable to men without devotion.
स्फुरत्परानन्दरसप्रवाहप्रपूर्णकैवल्यमहापयोधौ ।
चिरं निमग्ना: खलु गोपसङ्घास्त्वयैव भूमन् पुनरुद्धृतास्ते ॥९॥
परानन्दरस-(with) supreme bliss nectar
प्रवाह-प्रपूर्ण-flow, full of it
कैवल्य-महापयोधौ(in the) liberation's great ocean
चिरं निमग्ना:for long immersed
खलु गोपसङ्घा:-indeed the Gopas
त्वया-एव भूमन्by Thee only, O Infinite One!
पुन:-उद्धृता:-तेagain were taken out, they
The great ocean of liberation was full and overflowing and lustruous with the supreme blissful nectar. The groups of Gopas were indeed immersed in it for long. O Infinite One! By Thee alone they were drawn back to their worldly state of consciousness.
करबदरवदेवं देव कुत्रावतारे
निजपदमनवाप्यं दर्शितं भक्तिभाजाम् ।
तदिह पशुपरूपी त्वं हि साक्षात् परात्मा
पवनपुरनिवासिन् पाहि मामामयेभ्य: ॥१०॥
कर-बदर-वत्-एवंin hand a berry like thus
देव कुत्र-अवतारेO Lord! In which incarnation
निज-पदम्-अनवाप्यम्Thy own abode (which is) unattainable
दर्शितं भक्तिभाजाम्is shown to the devotees
तत्-इह पशुपरूपीso here, in the cowherd form
त्वं हि साक्षात्Thou indeed, in reality are
परात्माSupreme Lord!
पवनपुरनिवासिन्O Dweller of Guruvaayura!
पाहि माम्-save me
आमयेभ्य:from ailments
O Lord! Thy unattainable abode was revealed to the devotees with such ease and clearly as a berry in one's palm. In which other incarnation of Thee has such a thing happened? So, it is certain that here in the form of a cowherd, Thou are the Supreme Self. O Dweller of Guruvaayur! save me from ailments.

Narayaneeyam - Part XXXXXXIII

Dashaka 63
ददृशिरे किल तत्क्षणमक्षत-
स्तनितजृम्भितकम्पितदिक्तटा: ।
सुषमया भवदङ्गतुलां गता
व्रजपदोपरि वारिधरास्त्वया ॥१॥
ददृशिरे किलwere seen indeed
तत्-क्षणम्-(at) that moment
अक्षत-स्तनित-continuously roaring
जृम्भित-कम्पित-(and) spreading (and) causing to tremble
दिक्-तटा:the quarters to their ends
सुषमयाin their brilliance
भवत्-अङ्ग-तुलांThy form in resemblance
व्रजपद-उपरिabove the land of Vraja
वारिधरा:-त्वयाrain clouds by Thee (were seen)
At that moment, indeed, above the land of Vraja, were seen by Thee massive rain clouds continuously roaring and spreading. They caused all the quarters to tremble and they resembled Thy form in their brilliance.
र्दिशिदिशि पशुपानां मण्डले दण्ड्यमाने ।
कुपितहरिकृतान्न: पाहि पाहीति तेषां
वचनमजित श्रृण्वन् मा बिभीतेत्यभाणी: ॥२॥
विपुल-करक्-मिश्रै:-huge hail stones accompanied by
तोय-धारा-निपातै:-torrential rain fall
दिशि-दिशिin all directions
पशुपानां मण्डले(when) the cowherds' groups
दण्ड्य़मानेwere being tormented
कुपित-(from) angered
हरि-कृतात्-Indra's actions
न: पाहि पाहि-save, save us
इति तेषां वचनम्-thus their words
अजित श्रृणवन्O Invincible One! Hearing
मा विभीत-do not be afraid
इति-अभाणी:thus (Thou) said
There was torrential rain in all directions accompanied by huge enormous hail stones. The group of cowherds were tormented by the wrathful action of Indra. They all cried and prayed to be protected. O Invincible One! Hearing their laments , Thou asked them not to fear.
कुल इह खलु गोत्रो दैवतं गोत्रशत्रो-
र्विहतिमिह स रुन्ध्यात् को नु व: संशयोऽस्मिन् ।
इति सहसितवादी देव गोवर्द्धनाद्रिं
त्वरितमुदमुमूलो मूलतो बालदोर्भ्याम् ॥३॥
कुल इह(for) the clan here
खलु गोत्र: दैवतंindeed the mountain is the deity
गोत्र-शत्रो:-the mountain enemy's
विहितम्-इह्attack here
स रुन्ध्यात्he will resist
क: नु व: संशय:-what indeed is your doubt
अस्मिन् इतिin this, thus
सहसित-वादीwith a smile saying
देवO Lord!
गोवर्द्धन-अद्रिम्the Govardhana mountain
उदमुमूल: मूलत:uprooted from the roots
बाल-दोर्भ्याम्with (Thy) two tender hands
Here, for our clan, the mountain is the deity. Indra is the enemy of mountains. This mountain, Govardhan, will resist Indra's attack. Indeed what is your doubt in this?' Thou said so with a smile. O Lord! Assuring them, Thou quickly uprooted the Govardhana mountain with Thy two tender arms.
तदनु गिरिवरस्य प्रोद्धृतस्यास्य तावत्
सिकतिलमृदुदेशे दूरतो वारितापे ।
परिकरपरिमिश्रान् धेनुगोपानधस्ता-
दुपनिदधदधत्था हस्तपद्मेन शैलम् ॥४॥
तदनु गिरिवरस्यthereafter of (this) mountain
प्रोद्धृतस्य-(which) was lifted up
अस्य तावत्this then
सिकतिल-मृदु-देशेon the soft sand bed
दूरत: वारित-आपेwhich till far away was protected from water
परिकर-परिमिश्रान्household articles, along with
धेनु-गोपान्-cows and cowherds
अधत्था:(Thou) held aloft
हस्त-पद्मेनwith one lotus like arm
शैलम्the mountain
Then Thou held aloft the lifted up mountain with Thy lotus like arm. The soft sand bed of the mountain was well protected from the rain water. The cows and cowherds all gathered under the uplifted mountain along with their belongings and were also well protected.
भवति विधृतशैले बालिकाभिर्वयस्यै-
रपि विहितविलासं केलिलापादिलोले ।
सविधमिलितधेनूरेकहस्तेन कण्डू-
यति सति पशुपालास्तोषमैषन्त सर्वे ॥५॥
भवति(when) Thou
विधृत-शैलेwere holding the mountain
बालिकाभि:with the girls and
वयस्यै:-अपिwith the boys of Thy age group also
विहित-विलासंwith enthusiasm
केलि-लाप-आदि-लोलेin playful conversation etc engaging
सविध-मिलित-धेनू:-near Thee gathered cows
एक-हस्तेनwith one hand
कण्डूयति सतिcaressing
पशुपाला:-the cowherds
तोषम्-ऐषन्तsatisfaction achieved
सर्वेall of them
As Thou were holding the mountain, Thou enthusiastically engaged the girls and boys of Thy age group in playful conversation. The cows gathered around Thee and Thou caressed them with one hand. The cowherds were all very satisfied and delighted.
अतिमहान् गिरिरेष तु वामके
करसरोरुहि तं धरते चिरम् ।
किमिदमद्भुतमद्रिबलं न्विति
त्वदवलोकिभिराकथि गोपकै: ॥६॥
अतिमहान्very big
गिरि:-एषmountain this (is)
तु वामकेhowever in the left
कर-सरोरुहिhand, lotus like
तं धरते चिरम्this (mountain) (he) is holding for long
किम्-इदम्-what this
अद्रि-बलं(or) mountain's power
नु-इतिindeed (is it) thus
त्वत्-अवलोकिभि:-by Thy onlookers
आकथि गोपकै:was said by the cowherds
This mountain is so huge. Yet he is holding it in his left hand which is tender like a lotus stalk, for long. What a marvel! Is it that it is the power of the mountain to have lifted itself up?' The Gopas who were Thy onlookers commented thus.
अहह धार्ष्ट्यममुष्य वटोर्गिरिं
व्यथितबाहुरसाववरोपयेत् ।
इति हरिस्त्वयि बद्धविगर्हणो
दिवससप्तकमुग्रमवर्षयत् ॥७॥
अहह धार्ष्ट्यम्-Oh! Arrogance
अमुष्य वटो:-of this small boy
गिरिम् व्यथित-बाहु:-the mountain (with) pained hands
असौ-अवरोपयेत्this (mountain) will place back
इति हरि:-त्वयिthus Indra in Thee
बद्ध-विगर्हण:full of contempt
दिवस-सप्तकम्-for seven days
उग्रम्-अवर्षयत्heavily rained
Oh! The arrogance of this small boy! When his hands pain by the weight of the mountain, he will put it back in place.' Saying so Indra who was full of contempt for Thee poured rain heavily for seven days.
अचलति त्वयि देव पदात् पदं
गलितसर्वजले च घनोत्करे ।
अपहृते मरुता मरुतां पति-
स्त्वदभिशङ्कितधी: समुपाद्रवत् ॥८॥
अचलति त्वयि(when) did not move Thou
देवO Lord!
पदात् पदंfrom Thy place, (even) one step
गलित-सर्व-जले(and when) were exhausted all the waters
च घनोत्करेand the clouds
अपहृते मरुता(and when they) were dispersed by the winds
मरुतां पति:the head of the gods Indra
त्वत्-अभिशङ्कित-धी:(about) Thee (having) a doubtful mind
Thou had not stirred one step from Thy place. All the clouds were drained and exhausted of their waters. They were drifted away and scattered by the winds. Noticing all this, the head of the gods, Indra was scared of Thy might and fled.
शममुपेयुषि वर्षभरे तदा
पशुपधेनुकुले च विनिर्गते ।
भुवि विभो समुपाहितभूधर:
प्रमुदितै: पशुपै: परिरेभिषे ॥९॥
शमम्-उपेयुषिsubsiding (having) reached
वर्षभरे तदाthe heavy rain then
पशुप-धेनु-कुलेthe cowherds and the cows
च विनिर्गतेhad come out (from under the mountain)
भुवि विभोon the ground O Lord!
समुपाहित-भूधर:(Thee who) had placed the mountain
प्रमुदितै: पशुपै:by the overjoyed cowherds
परिरेभिषेwere embraced
The heavy rain had then subsided and the cows and cowherds had come out from under the mountain. O Lord! Thou then replaced the mountain on the earth and were embraced by the overjoyed cowherds.
धरणिमेव पुरा धृतवानसि
क्षितिधरोद्धरणे तव क: श्रम: ।
इति नुतस्त्रिदशै: कमलापते
गुरुपुरालय पालय मां गदात् ॥१०॥
धरणिम्-एव पुराearth also itself, long ago
धृतवानसिhad lifted up (Thou)
क्षितिधर-उद्धरणेin mountain lifting up
तव क: श्रम:Thy what effort
इति नुत:-त्रिदशै:thus praised by the gods
कमलापतेO Consort of Laxmi!
गुरुपुरालयO Resident of Guruvaayur!
पालय मां गदात्save me from ailments
O Consort of Laxmi! The gods praised Thee saying that long ago (in the incarnation of a Boar) Thou had lifted up the whole earth itself. Lifting up the mountain was not much of an effort for Thee. O Resident of Guruvaayur! Save me from ailments.