Tuesday, March 8, 2011

Nyaya Philosophy - Part IV

No non-earth element has smell.
The earth has smell.
The earth is different from other elements.
[c] Anvayavyatireki: Method of Double Agreement. When the hetu is both positively and genatively related to sadhya, then the inference is Anvayavyatireki.
All things which have smoke have fire;
This hill has smoke;
This hill has fire; and
No non-fiery things have smoke;
this hill has smoke;
This hill is not non-fiery.
[1] Asiddha: It is the unproved hetu that results in this fallacy. [Paksadharmata]
[a] Ashrayasiddha: If Paksha [minor term] itself is unreal, then there cannot be locus of the hetu. e.g. The sky-lotus is fragrant, because it is a lotus like any other lotus.
[b] Svarupasiddha: Hetu cannot exist in paksa at all. E.g. Sound is a quality, because it is visible.
[c] Vyapyatvasiddha: Conditional hetu. `Wherever there is fire, there is smoke'. The presence of smoke is due to wet fuel.
[2] Savyabhichara: This is the fallacy of irregular hetu.
[a] Sadharana: The hetu is too wide. It is present in both sapaksa and vipaksa. `The hill has fire because it is knowable'.
[b] Asadharana: The hetu is too narrow. It is only present in the Paksha, it is not present in the Sapaksa and in the Vipaksha. `Sound is eternal because it is audible'.
[c] Anupasamhari: Here the hetu is non-exclusive. The hetu is all-inclusive and leaves nothing by way of sapaksha or vipaksha. e.g. 'All things are non-ternal, because they are knowable'.
[3] Satpratipaksa: Here the hetu is contradicted by another hetu. If both have equal force, then nothing follows. 'Sound is eternal, because it is audible', and 'Sound is non-eternal, because it is produced'. Here 'audible' is counter-balanced by 'produced' and both are of equal force.
[4] Badhita: It is non-inferentially contradicted middle. 'Fire is cold because it is a substance'.
[5] Viruddha: Instead of proving something it is proving the opposite. 'Sound is eternal becuase it is produced'.

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